1. How does the DBM paper entrap the rna probes?

rna is having _ve charge & DBM paper having positive chrg
hence due to thease opposite charges DBM paper binds to RNA

2. What is the nature of DBM paper in northern blotting?

positively charged i.e,cationic nature

3. Why do you use DBM instead of NCF in the northern blotting and what are the pre-treatments required for this paper to be used?

diazobenzyloxymethyl paper that binds all single-stranded DNA, RNA, and proteins by means of covalent linkages to the diazonium group; used in situations where nitrocellulose blotting is not technically feasible

4. What is the main objective of northern blotting?

it is used to determine the protein from a mixture of compounds


eukaryotes does not contain restriction modificayion system

6. What is the difference between transfection and transduction?why the word trasfection is prefers for transfer of genetic material through non viral particles in eukaryote not for prokaryote?

Transfection- (Transfer+ Infection)transfer of naked DNA
(DNA without any carrier)into an Eukaryotic cell.
Transduction-Transfer of genetic material among bacteria by
carrier (bacteriophage).
Since the term 'Transformation' is used in case of transfer
of naked DNA (through non viral particles) into
prokaryotes,while the term 'Transfection' is uused in case
of eukaryotes because the term transformation is used for
the conversion of normal body cells into cancerous cells
which undergo unlimited cell division, so to avoid the
confusion between these two different cell processes the
other term Transfection is used in eukaryotes in place of
the term transformation in prokaryotes.

7. What is difference between transfection and transduction?

Transfection:Transfer of naked dna into eukaryotic cell

Transduction:Trnsfer of genetic material from bacteria to
virus through bacteriophage

8. What bacteria should we eat?

Why, bacteria eat almost anything they can get! Of course,
they can't chew through cement. They can eat anything
edible to animals and humans, probably more! Take wood for
example, termites eat wood, bacteria eat wood too. In fact,
termites wouldn't even be able to eat wood if it wasn't for
the bacteria in their stomachs!

Bacteria are decomposers. Decomposers eat anything dead and
once they are finished they put nutrients from the dead
object or plant back into the ground to grow new plants

9. What is the difference between defined, characterized and standard serum?

define serum is the artificial serum made by man and
composition of which is well known by us
characterized serum is that which made up of specific
characters for example it contains specific antibody against
specific disease
stander serum is serum which is collected from normal blood
which we can not make in laboratory scale although we know
composition of it.

10. What is the future of bio informatics in India?

1- In drug discovery research

2- Analysis of genome wide biomedical data

3- In genome and sequence analysis

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11. Dubai is desert how it is possible it is becoming greenery?

By genetically modifying any plant such that it will resist
the climate in dubai n still will give fruits n green
for eg...
may be cutting a gene code from cactus plant and pasting it
in apple plant...

12. Why do you want to do Phd?

PhD is a threshold qualification about research, & makes capable to present your idea/view as a Philosopher.

13. Who is the father of biotechnology?

The father of term biotechnology is Karl Ereky and father of
biotechnology is Louis Pasteur

14. What are the five greatest discoveries in the field of r DNA technology?

1- restriction enzyme
2- ligase enzyme
3- formation of recombintant plasmid by using these enzyme
4- selection of transformed cell
5- cDNA and genomic library

15. Sucrose is commonly used to preserve fruits why not glucose?

Glucose is reactive because its open-chain form contains an
aldehyde group.

16. Is GMO food good as the prospective of the ethic values of the society?


17. How to calculate protein percentage in lowry method?

by determination of optical density by coloimetric method