1. Described POST beep codes of an IBM system?

The IBM POST beep codes are as follows:

★ 1 short beep: This indicates that the POST was normal without any exceptions.
★ 2 short beeps: This indicates there was an error and the message is displayed on the screen.
★ No beep: Indicates no power or disconnection.
★ Continuous beep: This is indicative of a power supply, motherboard or a keyboard problem.
★ One long one short beep: this is indicative of a problem with the mother / system board.
★ One long two short beeps indicates that there is a problem with the display adapter

2. Tell me what common modern motherboard contain?

The modern motherboards at a minimum contain at least:

★ Sockets: The sockets are used to install the processor.
★ The memory slots where the user can install the main memory for the system.
★ Chipset: The chipset is used as a the interface for communication between the processor, main memory and the bus.
★ Flash ROM: These store permanents information such as the BIOS, firmware etc.
★ Power connector: The power connector is connected with the SMPS to deliver power to the components on the motherboard.
★ Expansion slots: The expansion slots are used for various devices to be connected to the system.

3. Which process of DOS being controlled by Motherboard?

The DOS control can be explained in the following steps:
★ The first step the boot loader loads the boot record to the memory, which is given the control ( boot program ) inside the boot record.
★ This program now check for the IO.SYS and MSDOS.SYS as the first entries.
★ Now the program loads the IO.SYS and is given control.
★ The IO.SYS simply loads the MSDOS.SYS file and starts looking for the CONFIG.SYS file .
★ Finally the MSDOS.SYS file is given control, this file now initializes interrupt vectors and loads the COMMAND.COM file.
★ Lastly the autoexec.bat file is loaded, executed.

4. Described the characteristics of micro programmed control?

Characteristics of micro programmed control units:
★ These control units are implemented as micro programs of routines.
★ The control unit implemented in micro program is implemented in the form of a CPU inside another CPU.
★ These types of circuits are simple but comparatively slower.

5. Described characteristics of hardwired control units?

The characteristics of hardwired control units are as follows:
★ Hardwired control units are based on combinational circuits.
★ In these type of systems the inputs and transforms are set into control signals.
★ Theses units are faster and are known to have a more complex structure.

6. Explain multiple LSI's are used in computers list out some of their special purposes?

Some of the purposes for which the LSI are used are as follows:

★ PIC or the programmable interrupt controller.
★ PIT or the programmable interrupt timer.
★ PPI or programmable peripheral interface.
★ CRTC is used for the controlling of the CRT.
★ The floppy disk, hard disk and DMA controller are used for special purposes.
★ The real time calendar or clock is used to organize and sort out things.

7. Described Characteristics of multiprogramming?

★ Multiple programs can be present in the memory at a given time.
★ The resources are dynamically allocated.
★ The size of the memory is larger comparatively.

8. Described characteristics of uniprogramming?

★ Uni programming allows only one program to be present in memory at a time.
★ The resources are provided to the single program that is present in the memory at that time.
★ Since only one program is loaded the size is small as well.

9. List the features of physical addresses?

★ The physical address as the name suggests is the actual location which can be found in the memory.
★ They are used by the CPU in order to specify the range of addresses.

10. List the features of logical address?

★ The logical address is used by the CPU and is actually a specification.
★ It is used to represent the size of the CPU address register size.

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11. Explain the motherboard supported feature USB?

USB: Usb ports are also present on the motherboard that allows the user to connect various external devices.

12. Explain the motherboard supported feature Sound card?

Sound card: Most motherboards these days are preinstalled with a 8 channel audio chip.

13. Explain the motherboard supported feature Ethernet network controller?

Ethernet network controller: The motherboards also come preinstalled with a LAN port for networking purposes.

14. Explain the motherboard supported feature Integrated graphics?

Integrated graphics: Most budget motherboards come with a GPU installed on it that supports VGA / HDMI and DVI out.

15. Explain the motherboard supported feature Controllers?

Controllers: Disk controllers are present on the motherboards that can be used to manage floppy drives and SATA / PATA hard disk drives.

16. Which features that are supported by the motherboard?

★ Controllers
★ Integrated graphics
★ Sound card
★ Ethernet network controller
★ USB

17. Explain primary functions of the motherboard?

Some of the prime functions of a computer motherboard are as follows:
★ The motherboard acts as the central backbone of a computer on which other modular parts are installed such as the CPU, RAM and hard disks.
★ The motherboard also acts as the platform on which various expansion slots are available to install other devices / interfaces.
★ The motherboard is also responsible to distribute power to the various components of the computer.
★ They are also used in the coordination of the various devices in the computer and maintain an interface among them.

18. Which primary checks that are performed by POST?

★ The CPU registers are verified.
★ The BIOS code integrity is checked.
★ The basic components such as the DMA, timer etc are checked.
★ The system memory is verified and checked.
★ All the system buses are discovered, cataloged and executed, activated.
★ BIOS is initialized after it.
★ Ready the environment that is required by the OS to function.

19. Explain POST?

POST or the power on self test is a routine that is executed immediately once the system is powered on. It is only after POST that a system allows the bootstrap loader to be initialized. The POST is performed to ensure that the system peripherals are connected and functioning and there are no compatibility issues.

20. Can you list out areas where there has been improvements in the PC design area?

PC design has greatly improved in the last decade primarily in these areas:

★ Microprocessor:
Today a normal desktop PC can have processors which have exceeded 3gHz limits and can have more than one physical core.
★ Peripherals:
The list of devices that can be connected to the computer via various ports have increased.
★ Hardware components:
The level of components that are being used have also increased in complexity.
★ OS:
The operating systems being used today have also greatly improved supporting more higher hardware specifications.
★ Layouts:
The layouts and modules being used for computers have also greatly improved.

21. Explain the difference between primary and secondary storage device?

In primary storage device the storage capacity is limited. It has a volatile memory. In secondary storage device the storage capacity is larger. It is a nonvolatile memory. Primary devices are: RAM / ROM. Secondary devices are: Floppy disc / Hard disk.

Primary storage device is Ram where the instructions are stored for temporary and secondry storage is hard disk floppy cds etc.

22. What is Computer motherboard?

If you open your computers case, the motherboard is the flat, rectangular piece of circuit board to which everything seems to connect to for one reason or another.

Its the circuit board which contain processor,north bridge&south bridge and slots.

23. Explain a Microprocessor?

Microprocessor is a program-controlled device, which fetches the instructions from memory, decodes and executes the instructions. Most Micro Processor are single- chip devices.

A single chip CPU is called as Microprocessor.The CPU is made of two units namely the Arithmetic and Logic Unit and the Control Unit.It performs functions like executing the instructions given by the user program, controlling the I/O operations and the functions of peripheral devices

24. Design a 2-bit magnitude comparator and write its RTL description also?

8-bit Processor - 8085 / Z80 / 6800; 16-bit Processor - 8086 / 68000 / Z8000; 32-bit Processor - 80386 / 80486.

25. Explain the difference between RAM and ROM?

RAM: Read / Write memory, High Speed, Volatile Memory. ROM: Read only memory, Low Speed, Non Voliate Memory.

RAM- Random Access memory it is a Volatile Memory
volatile mean= when power is off data is loss ok
ROM- read only memory it is a non-volatile memory
it is read only memory we don't write this memory only read

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26. What is cache memory on Motherboard?

Cache memory is a small high-speed memory. It is used for temporary storage of data & information between the main memory and the CPU (center processing unit). The cache memory is only in RAM.

27. Explain Examples for 8 / 16 / 32 bit Microprocessor?

8-bit Processor - 8085 / Z80 / 6800; 16-bit Processor - 8086 / 68000 / Z8000; 32-bit Processor - 80386 / 80486.

28. why we know that this motherboard is correct on this condition that computer is no display?

if ram is not working then we can change it and check that display if display not comes then we can say that it has problem with motherboard
first check in smps he will work right then check ram, ram is out in side slot then ruff the earesar ram is work in ok then check is cmos battery then last check is power cable and vga cable he will work ok then replace the motherboard.

29. Explain What are Motherboard Components?

It contains the following key components:<br>1.A microprocessor "socket" which defines what kind of central processing unit the motherboard uses.<br>2.A chipset which forms the computer's logic system. It is usually composed of two parts called bridges (a "north" bridge and its opposite, "south" bridge), which connects the CPU to the rest of the system;<br>3.A Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) chip which controls the most basic function of a computer, and how to repair it; and<br>4.A real-time clock which is a battery-operated chip which maintains the system's time, and other basic functions. <br><br>The motherboard also has slots or ports for the attachment of various peripherals or support system/hardware. There is an Accelerated Graphics Port, which is used exclusively for video cards; Integrated Drive Electronics, which provides the interfaces for the hard disk drives; Memory or RAM cards; and Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI), which provides electronic connections for video capture cards and network cards, among others.

motherboard components are hdd,memory,processor,graphic card,net card,BIOS chip.

30. Explain How to clear Computer Motherboard CMOS password?

To clear Computer Motherboard CMOS password we will do these steps. Since CMOS is a special chip with its own battery, the best way to clear out a CMOS chip is to disconnect it from its power supply.

To clear the CMOS password you just remove the CMOS Battery or else you can also use a jumper settings.