1. What is the temperature that maintained in Spisation method of Sterlization?

75C to 80C

2. Specific gravity for normal range of Urine?

1.0101 to 1.025

3. What are the medias that should be sterilized in Inspiration process?

Lofflers media and Lovenson Jensen media

4. What is the Normal range for fast blood sugar?

fasting blood sugar after 8 hours of overnight fasting shall
be between 70 to 99 mg/dl. Any increase from this range
shall be viewed seriously and blood sugar checked
periodically with glucometer or by means of any accredited lab.

5. Name the causal organism of measles?

measles is caused by a virus.it's known as paramyxo virus.
its main genetic component is rna virus.

6. Name the essential aminoacid present in children?

essential amino acid present in children is histidine

7. Name the instrument which is used for counting rbc?

HAEMOCYTOMETER is an instrument used for counting the
red blood cells per millimetre of blood.

8. What is the incubation period for the disease mumps and what is the causal organism?

the incubation period for mumps is 2-3 weeks and the
causal organism is Myxovirus parotiditis.

9. What is the total salt content of blood plasma?

total salt content of blood plasma is about 0.85-0.9%
main salts are sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate.
along with this several chlorodes,phosphates,carbonates and
bicarbonates of sodium,calcium,magnesium are present.

10. What is the normal count of WBC per ml of blood?

in blood wbc count is 5-7 *10 powers 12.

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11. What are arboviruses?

the viruses which are transmitted through arthropods are
known as arboviruses.

eg:in the disease encephalitis these arboviruses acts as
disease transmittants.

12. What are elisa tests and pcr tests?

ELISA TEST is the test to identify whether the particular
person is affected by HIV virus or not.

ELISA means Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay

In this test person's blood is tested by introducing HIV
antibodies. If blood clots within 30 seconds then the
person is said to be HIV positive otherwise hiv negative.

PCR test is the test to identify the aminoacid sequence in
a polypeptide chain of a specific protein.

PCR means Polymerase Chain Reaction.

13. What are chrithidial forms of leishmania donovani?

Chrithidial forms of leishmania donovani are leptomonas and
leptomonad forms.In these leptomonas is flagellate form and
leptomonad is ciliate form.In the disease kalaazar
leptomonad forms lives in the peripheral layers in the
dermis and actively move at night times.leptomonas are
inactive forms and they lie in the deeper layers of dermis.

14. What is the difference between plasma and serum?

Plasma is an anticoagulant and serum is a clot activator
therefore when blood mixes with plasma it cannot become or
make a clot, but when it is mixed with serum it clots. Many
anticoagulants contain calcium which binds with blood,
other contain potassium oxalate which can act as a
preservative for the blood.
When blood is mixed with serum it will clot faster because
many contain thrombin which coagulates faster and other
thixotropic gel which acts as thrombin.

15. Which disease occurs due to the deficiency of vitamin "D"? what r its symptoms?

Rickets is the disease which is occuring due to the
deficiency of vitamin "D".

Its symptoms are deformed leg,pelvis and bones will lose
their strength due to the deficiency of "D".
This vitamin is otherwise called as sunshine vitamin,because
we can get this vitamin directly from sunlight.

16. What preventive measures should be taken for Malaria, Influenza, Cholera?

Malaria:- (1) Draining of the soil
(1) Destruction of the mosquitoe?s eggs
(2) Filling up of pools or draining off of the pools
(3) Use of mosquito-net for sleeping
(4) House should be built at a distance from the marshes
(5) Killing of adult mosquitoes by means of fumigation
(6) Use of Quinine
Influenza:- (1) Over-crowded places of public amusement
should be avoided during the epidemic
(2) Gargling with potassium
per-menganate solution should be done twice a day to promote
hygiene of the mouth
(3) Innoculation
(4) Nourshing diet should be taken
(5) Patient should be isolated
(6) Complete rest after attack
(7) Concurrent disinfection of towels

Cholera:- (1) Supply of pure water should be made
(2) Ice water and aerated water should be
avoided during the days of epidemic
(3) Food should not be exposed to flies
(4) All vegetables and fruits should be
washed with potassium permanganate before use
(5) Over- ripe and under-ripe things should
not be taken
(6) Utensils and articles if daily use
should be kept away from the patient
(7) Stools and vomits of the patient should
be burnt
(8) Stomach should not be empty
(9) Use of purgatives should be avoided.

17. What ate the causes and cure of :
(a) Malaria
(b) Tentanus
(c) Scurvy

(a) It is caused by the bite of Anopheles mosquito, Its cure
is quinine.
(b) It is caused by tentanns bacillus which grows only in
the absence of oxygen. The germ enters the skin through a
cut or wound and causes infection. The cure is anti-tentanus
(c) It is caused due to lack if vitamin C. The cure is the
juices of tomatoes, lemons, oranges etc..

18. What are the causes, cure and preventive measures of
(a) Diabetes
or Rabies

(a)Diabetes :- This disease is caused when the body becomes
unable to make use of the sugar present in the food. This
excessive sugar accumulates in the blood and is then passed
through the urine. It early symptoms are not visible to the
patient. The disease is known by the patient only when there
is excessive thirst and when too much urine is passed.

For its cure, there should be regular injections
of insulin ; and for prevention, the diet should be regulated.

Plague :- This disease is caused by the bite of infected rat
flea. It can be cured by Streptomycin and Sulpha drugs. Its
preventive measures are
(1) Complete isolation of the patient.
(2) Burning of dead rats and killing of living rats.
(3) Anti-plague inoculation, Disinfection of the clothes and
utensils of the patient.
Typhoid :- It is an infectious fever and is caused by the
germ known as Typhoid bacillus. It is also caused by
drinking infected water and milk, by eating infected
ice-cream and fish. Its symptoms ate headache, fever etc..
It cure us T.A.B. innoculation

It preventive measures are
(1) Avoid exposure of things to flies.
(2) Disinfection of all clothes and utensils of the patient
(3) Avoid taking under-ripe and over-ripe things
(4) Boiling of water before drinking and washing of
vegetables etc.. with potassium parmaganate.
(5) Complete rest.

Hydrophobia :-It us caused by the bite of a rabid animal
generally a dog. Jackal, fox or cat

Its cure is prophylactic vaccination. It can be
prevented by avoiding bite of a rabid animal and if bitten,
the bitten part should be cleaned well with potassium
parmenganate or hot water.

19. What is tuberculosis? How can it be prevented?

It is an infectious disease. It takes up various forms. Its
earliest signs are loss of weight and night sweets. Its
germs are Tubercle Bacillus. It spreads due to inhaling its
germ along with air

Prevention :-
(1) Complete isolation if the patient
(2) Keeping up separate utensils
(3) Well-ventilated house and fresh air
(4) Good nourishing and protective food
(5) Good diet
(6) Use of B.C.G Vaccine and Streptomycin

20. What are infectious diseases? How are they spread? Describe some preventive measures?

Diseases like tuberculosis, influenza, small-pox, cholera,
typhoid which are caused by the entry if germs into out body
are known as infectious or communicable diseases. The germs
that cause these diseases pass form one man to another in
various ways. People suffering form pneumonia, cold,
influenza in various ways, spit out in to the atmosphere
numerous bacteria of these diseases. Such bacteria may be
inhaled by other persons through the air they breathe in. A
typhoid or cholera patient discharges with his excreta
millions of typhoid or cholera germs. If the clothes of
these patients are wash in tanks, the germs of these
diseases get mixed with water, who would drink this
contaminated water. Files play a very important part in the
spread of diseases. Thus the disease-germs spread through
air, food and water, or by direct contact

Diseases can, thus, be prevented by
destroying these disease carrying germs. Nature has it self
provided with germ-killing agents. They are sunlight and
dry air. Heat is employed to kill germs. The clothes,
bedding etc. of a sick man can be disinfected by boiling
then in water. Cups, spoons and other vessels used by a
sick person can also be made free from germs by heating
these directly or by boiling then in water. The room of the
patient should be washed with any of the popular
disinfectants available in the market. Cholera germs can be
destroyed by potassium permanganate. Files which are
carriers of disease germs should also be destroyed.
Similarly rats which cause plague should be killed, Breeding
places of vaccination should be carried out to prevent
small-pox . These should be used on a mass-scale whenever
there is the danger of an epidemic. These vaccines make the
human body immume for various kinds of diseased.

Local bodies play a very important role
in the prevention of diseased. Even if an individual eats
the right kind of food, breathes pure and fresh air,
observes personal cleanliness and keep his house and
surroundings clean, he may yet fall ill by association with
others in his neighbourhood, who may not be as clean as he
should be. It is the responsibility of the local body to see
that the streets, public parks, schools, public halls and
other places where people congregate are kept clean. Open
drains should be cleaned everyday, wells should be
disinfected, dust-bins are away from residential buildings
municipality should be clean and not contaminated.
Adulterated foodstuffs should not be allowed to be sold and
sweets and cut-fruit should be properly protected againg
flies and other germs-carrying insects

21. Explain Penicillin, antiseptic, artificial insemination,
hydrophobia, cataract, memingitis, mumps?

Penicillin :-The discovery of penicillin by sir Fleming has
had a profound influence over the medical science. It is
obtained from the mould of breath.

Antiseptic :-An antiseptic is a chemical which destroys and
arrests the growth of bacteria. It is used in surgery. Some
important antiseptic chemicals are Lysol, dettoi, carbolic
acid, potassium permanganate .

Artificial insemination :- Artificial insemination is used
in cross-breeding to get better breeds of animals. The semen
of a male animal is introduced onto the female uterus by
means of a syringe. It is sometimes employed in human beings

Hydrophobia:-This disease is caused by dog and wolf bite.
This is also called rabies. The wound of the bite is soon
healed up. Bur the symptoms of the disease show up only
after a few weeks. By and by the patient get excited and
wild and behaves amost like the animal. The cure lies in
taking anti-rabies injections which should be taken as soon
after the incident as soon after the incident as possible.
Otherwise it may be too late.

Cataract :-This is a disease of the eyes. The lens of the
eye becomes milky in appearance and the sight gets dimmer
and dimmer. The treatment is removal of the opaque lens by

Mamingitis :-This is a very severe disease. It is an
infection of the spinal chord. Symptoms are fever, soar
throat , headache, vomiting and spasms of muscles of the neck

Mumps:-This is an infectious disease which generally attacks
the children.
Symptoms are swelling of the glands on the temple
accompanied by fever

22. If ASO test comes positive,than what would be the solution?

i would like to do Repeate test
if again positive came i will do ASO Titre