A microcontroller is by definition a is a computer on a chip. It includes all the necessary parts (including the memory) all in one IC. You just need to apply the power (and possibly clock signal) to that device and it starts executing the program programmed to it. A microcontroller generally has the main CPU core, ROM/EPROM/EEPROM/FLASH, RAM and some necessary functions (like timers and I/O controllers) all integrated into one chip. The original idea behind the
microcontroller was to limit the capabilities of the CPU itself, allowing a complete computer (memory, I/O, interrupts, etc) to fit on the available silicon real estate.
Microcontrollers are typically used where processing power isn't so important. More important are generally compact construction, small size, low power consumption and that those chips are cheap. For example controlling a microwave oven is easily accomplished with the smallest of microcontrollers. There is countless number of small
electronic devices which are nowadays based on microcontroller. A modern home can include easily tens or hundreds of microcontrollers, as almost every modern device which has electronics have a microcontroller (or more than one) inside.
Microprocessor is generally just the CPU core itself, although nowadays it might have some accessory parts also integrated to the same chip
Specification of the task
Design of algorithms
Testing and debugging
Maintenance and evolution of the system
A real time operating system has well defined fixed time constraints. Process must be done within the defined constraints or the system will fail. An example is the operating system for a flight control computer or an advanced jet airplane. Often used as a control device in a dedicated application such as controlling scientific experiments, medical imaging systems, industrial control systems, and some display systems.Real-Time systems may be either hard or soft real-time.
Secondary storage limited or absent, data stored in short term memory, or read-only memory (ROM) Conflicts with time-sharing systems, not supported by general-purpose operating systems.
► Limited utility in industrial control of robotics
► Useful in applications (multimedia, virtual reality) requiring advanced operating-system features.
A real time process is a process that must respond to the events within a certain time period. A real time operating system is an operating system that can run real time processes successfully