1. In the neurons, there is an influx of Na+ and efflux of K+ during e-polarization.

True

2. In the neurons the excitability is increased if the extra cellular calcium concentrationis decreased

True

3. In the neurons the condition velocity increases with fiber diameter

True

4. In the neurons neurotransmitters are synthesized in the cell bodies andthen transported to the axons

False

5. In the neurons, the axons convey impulse away from the cell body

True

6. Joint position is conveyed in the dorsal column of the spinal cord

True

7. Proprioception is conveyed in the dorsal column of the spinal cord

True

8. Vibration is conveyed in the dorsal column of the spinal cord

True

9. Temperature is conveyed in the dorsal column of the spinal cord

False

10. Pain is conveyed in the dorsal column of the spinal cord

False

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11. The cerebrospinal fluid: has a lower concentration of immunoglobulin than theplasma

True

12. The cerebrospinal fluid: does not contain neutrophils in normal individuals

True

13. The cerebrospinal fluid: flows from the ventricles to the subarachnoid space viathe foramen of Monro

False

14. The cerebrospinal fluid: has a normal opening pressure of 7 - 18 cm H2O

True

15. The cerebrospinal fluid: has a normal volume of 150 ml

True

16. Bicarbonate has a lower concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) than plasma:

True

17. Magnesium has a lower concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) than plasma:

True

18. Potassium has a lower concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) than plasma:

False

19. Sodium has a lower concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) than plasma:

False

20. Glucose has a lower concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) than plasma:

False

21. Thyroid-stimulating hormones (TSH) is steroid hormone

False

22. Growth hormone is steroid hormone

False

23. Thyroxin is steroid hormone

False

24. Aldosterone is steroid hormone

True

25. Corticotrophin hormone (ACTH) is steroid hormones:

False

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26. Insulin increases the uptake of lipoprotein

True

27. Insulin is a steroid hormone

False

28. Insulin is required for glucose uptake in all tissues

False

29. Insulin increases protein synthesis

True

30. Insulin is secreted as a pro-insulin

True

31. The secretion of insulin is stimulated by amino acids

True

32. The secretion of insulin is stimulated by acetylcholine

True

33. The secretion of insulin is stimulated by fatty acids

False

34. The secretion of insulin is stimulated by somatostatin

False

35. The secretion of insulin is stimulated by adrenaline

False

36. The effects of gluco-corticoid hormones decreases glucose uptake by the skeletal muscles

True

37. The effects of gluco-corticoid hormones increases protein synthesis in the skeletalmuscles

False

38. The effects of gluco-corticoid hormones include decrease hepatic gluconeogesis

False

39. The effects of gluco-corticoid hormones decreases glucose uptake by the adiposetissue

True

40. The effects of gluco-corticoid hormones increases hepatic glycogen synthesis

True

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41. In autonomic nervous system the sympathetic preganglionic neurons leave the spinal cord via the dorsal roots of spinal nerves T1-L3

False

42. In autonomic nervous system the parasympathetic outflow is only found in thecranial nerves

False

43. In autonomic nervous system the preganglionic neurons of the sympatheticnervous system are shorter than the parasympathetic nervous system

True

44. In autonomic nervous system all preganglionic neurons are cholinergic

True

45. In autonomic nervous system the postganglionic neurons are largely unmyelinated

True

46. The light reflex involves the occipital cortex

False

47. The light reflex involves the oculomotor nerve

True

48. The light reflex involves the lateral geniculate body

False

49. The light reflex involves the ciliary ganglion

True

50. The light reflex involves the Edinger-Westphal nucleus

True

51. Dilatation of the peripheral arterial blood vessels can be caused by nitric oxide.

True

52. Dilatation of the peripheral arterial blood vessels can be caused by prostaglandins

True

53. Dilatation of the peripheral arterial blood vessels can be caused by endothelia

False

54. Dilatation of the peripheral arterial blood vessels can be caused by adenosinephosphate

False

55. Dilatation of the peripheral arterial blood vessels can be caused by thromboxane A2

False

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56. The intracranial pressure is decreased by: the administration of sodium nitroprusside

True

57. The intracranial pressure is decreased by a rise in the arterial pCO2

False

58. The intracranial pressure is decreased by hyperventilation

True

59. The intracranial pressure is decreased by placing the patient in a head-up position

True

60. The intracranial pressure is decreased by intravenous mannitol

True

61. The oxygen dissociation curve is shifted to the right with decreased concentration of2, 3-DPG in the erythrocytes.

False

62. The oxygen dissociation curve is shifted to the right with sickle cell anemia

True

63. The oxygen dissociation curve is shifted to the right with respiratory acidosis

True

64. The oxygen dissociation curve is shifted to the right with pyrexia

True

65. The oxygen dissociation curve is shifted to the right with poly-cythaemia

False

66. ABO and rhesus (Rh) system, the second rhesus positive baby of a Rh negativemother is at a greater risk than the first

True

67. ABO and rhesus (Rh) system, d. rhesus antibodies occur naturally

False

68. ABO and rhesus (Rh) system, the presence of the D antigen means that thesubject is Rh positive

True

69. ABO and rhesus (Rh) system, a person who is group AB has anti-A and anti-Bantibodies

False

70. ABO and rhesus (Rh) system, a person of group O is a universal donor

True

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71. A red blood cell expresses HLA class II antigens on the cell surface

False

72. Red blood cells are released from the bone marrow as mature erythrocytes

False

73. Red blood cells has a life span of 120 days in the circulation

True

74. Red blood cells do not contain mitochondria

True

75. Red blood cells measured 15 um in diameter

False

76. Active vitamin D:

* a) Receptors are found in osteoblasts.
* b) Facilitates bone formation.
* c) Increases calcium ion transport across the intestinal brush border
* d) Facilitates bone resorption.

Answer - e

77. During the later stages of pregnancy, maternal blood pressure can fall if the woman lies on her back (supine hypotension). This is due to

* a) A reduction in maternal venous return
* b) A decrease in maternal heart rate because of the uterus pressing on the heart through the diaphragm
* c) Compression of the vena cava
* d) Increased fetal activity associated with discomfort due to compression of the fetus against the maternal vertebral column.

Answer - b

78. Survival of a fetus to birth at 40 weeks gestational age (term) is possible despite the absence of:

* a) Cerebral hemispheres
* b) An esophagus
* c) Kidneys
* d) A cardiovascular system

Answer - a

79. A single cross-bridge cycle can move a thin filament:

* a) Without the release of energy from ATP
* b) About 2.5 mm (2.5 x 10-3m)
* c) Along the entire length of an intact myosin molecule
* d) About 10 nm (10 x 10-9m)

Answer - d

80. Bronchodilator drugs include all the following EXCEPT:

* a) Salbutamol
* b) Aminophylline
* c) Isoprenaline
* d) Propranolol
* e) Adrenaline

Answer - d

81. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors:

* a) Inhibit the conversion of angiotensin to renin.
* b) Reduce the synthesis of angiotensin II and the subsequent release of aldosterone.
* c) Inhibit the release of renin by the kidneys.
* d) Inhibit the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.
* e) Increase blood pressure by their vasoconstrictor actions in renal arteries.

Answer - b

82. Predominant emphysema:

* a) Is typically characterized by a productive cough
* b) Is a reversible disease of large and small airways?
* c) Has a more severe course in people with high levels of antiproteases - (antielastase)
* d) Is caused by pulmonary hypertension
* e) None of the above is correct

Answer - c

83. Which of the following statements is correct?

* a) An increase in pressure in the pulmonary artery may cause hypertrophy of the left ventricle.
* b) Rupture of the myocardium is not life threatening as long as the pericardial sac remains intact.
* c) Myocardial rupture would most likely occur sometime after two weeks following a myocardial infarction.
* d) A disease, which increases blood pressure in the pulmonary artery, may lead to right ventricular failure.
* e) None of the above statements is true.

Answer - d

84. Hypoxia, such as occurs at high altitude:

* a) Increases partial pressure of arterial blood CO2
* b) decreases blood pH.
* c) Decreases peripheral resistance
* d) Increases the respiratory rate
* e) Decreases blood pressure

Answer - d

85. In a 60-year-old hypertensive person, the commonly observed increase in arterial pulse pressure is caused by:

* a) Increased stroke volume
* b) Increased myocardial contractility
* c) Decreased mean circulatory pressure
* d) Decreased arterial compliance
* e) Increased heart rate

Answer - d

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86. An 8-year-old normal girl (30 kg body weight) has a breathing frequency of 20 per Minute at rest and a tidal (breath) volume of 80 ml, her total ventilation is closest to:

* a) 0.25 L/min.
* b) 0.6 L/min.
* c) 1.6 L/min.
* d) 2.4 L/min.
* e) 32 L/min

Answer - c

87. If the heart of a resting normal person is increased from 60 to 90 beats per minute by artificial atrial pacing:

* a) Cardiac output will increase by at least 50%.
* b) Stroke volume will not be affected appreciably.
* c) Cardiac output will not be affected appreciably.
* d) Arterial pulse pressure will increase.
* e) Central venous pressure will increase.

Answer - c

88. In a typical capillary the:

* a) Pressure at the venous end exceeds that at the arterial end.
* b) Radius exceeds that of a typical arteriole.
* c) Tension in the wall increases as the hydrostatic pressure rises.
* d) Radius is more than three times as great as the radius of a red blood cell.
* e) Tension in the wall is proportional to the fourth power of the radius.

Answer - c

89. In a physically trained person:

* a) Heart rate can reach higher levels than in an untrained person exercising at an equivalent workload.
* b) Stroke volume is greater than in an untrained person.
* c) Vagal tone is lower than in an untrained person.
* d) Vascular resistance is lower than in an untrained person.
* e) Left ventricular end-diastolic volume is less than in an untrained person.

Answer - b

90. Which of the following values obtained during dynamic exercise could be considered abnormal?

* a) A heart rate of 150 BPM
* b) A cardiac output of 20 L/min
* c) A stroke volume of 100 ml
* d) A diastolic arterial blood pressure of 80 mmHg
* e) A systolic blood pressure of 80 mmHg

Answer - e

91. The blood flow through active skeletal muscle:

* a) Is phasic
* b) Increases primarily due to sympathetic vasodilatation in skeletal muscle blood vessels
* c) Increases only because mean arterial pressure increases.
* d) Increases during contraction, and decreases during relaxation
* e) Occurs at the same rate as blood flow through resting muscle

Answer - a

92. During an endurance event:

* a) Heart rate could increase by 200 beats per minute.
* b) Stroke volume could increase by about 100 ml.
* c) Cardiac output would increase only when the air temperature increased.
* d) It takes several minutes from the start of the event, for the heart rate to increase.
* e) Total peripheral resistance decreases.

Answer - e

93. During physical exercise:

* a) Parasympathetic stimulation increases blood flow to active skeletal muscle.
* b) Vasodilatation occurs in all organs.
* c) Sympathetic stimulation vasoconstricts the coronary circulation
* d) Sympathetic nerve fibers supplying the viscera are inhibited.
* e) The duration of ventricular diastole is shortened considerably, compared to the duration of systole.

Answer - e

94. The increase in tidal volume during dynamic exercise:

* a) Increases the expiratory reserve and inspiratory reserve volumes
* b) Increases linearly with work rate, up to about 5 L
* c) Is caused by recruitment of motor units in the muscles of breathing
* d) Is 10 times the resting tidal volume
* e) Is 10 times the vital capacity

Answer - c

95. Compliance:

* a) Has the units of cm water pressure per ml of air
* b) Is the change in volume for a given change in pressure?
* c) Has the units of cm water pressure per ml of air per minute
* d) Of the human lung can only be measured when the lung has been removed from the body.
* e) Is decreased by an increased airways resistance

Answer - b

96. Concerning the flow rate of air into or out of the lungs:

* a) The greater the effort of inspiration, the greater the flow rate
* b) The greater the effort of expiration, the greater the flow rate, particularly at low lung volumes.
* c) Expired air flows fastest at lung volumes near residual volume.
* d) The greatest overall resistance to airflow occurs at the level of the narrowest bronchioles.
* e) Radial traction increases the resistance to airflow during inspiration.

Answer - a

97. Pulmonary surfactant:

* a) Prevents large alveoli from emptying into smaller alveoli
* b) Prevents forced expiratory efforts from emptying the alveoli.
* c) Increases the filtration of fluid from pulmonary capillaries into the alveoli.
* d) Prevents small alveoli from emptying into large alveoli
* e) Keeps the lungs and thoracic wall together

Answer - d

98. A voltage-gated ion channel in a ventricular myocyte:

* a) Usually has a single gate that opens and closes.
* b) Sometimes, have two gates that open and close together.
* c) Is always closed when the cell is resting
* d) Selects the type of ion that passes across the membrane
* e) Usually close when the membrane potential depolarizes.

Answer - d

99. A class of ion passes through an open channel:

* a) When there is an electrochemical gradient for this ion across the membrane.
* b) Because ion pumps transport the ion across the membrane
* c) Because the selectivity filter conducts the ion through it.
* d) Because other ions of the same class link up together, and drag the ion with it.
* e) Because the voltage gates act as paddles, to sweep the ions through

Answer - a

100. Ion channels in ventricular myocytes:

* a) Are highly specialized phospholipids molecules.
* b) Extend from one side of the cell to the other.
* c) Let any substance pass through, so long as it is an ion.
* d) Stay open for several seconds at a time.
* e) Are generally controlled by the voltage across the membrane

Answer - e

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101. Social learning experiments on the modeling of aggressive behavior have demonstrated that

* a) Children are not affected by watching violence on television
* b) Abusive parenting accounts for most children's aggressive acts
* c) Children can develop aggressive behavior simply by watching others perform aggressive acts
* d) Children's aggressive behavior must be reinforced for it to be repeated
* e) Children imitate aggressive behavior seen on television only if the media violence is performed by children

Answer - c

102. With which of the following would a cognitively oriented therapist most likely be concerned?

* a) The number of negative self-statements made by the patient
* b) The temperament of the patient as a child
* c) The number of individuals in the patient's household
* d) The physiological makeup of the patient
* e) The responses made by the patient on a projective test

Answer - a

103. Person-(client) centered the rapists are most likely to use which of the following modes of treatment?

* a) Intra-psychic therapy
* b) Unconditional positive regard
* c) Drug therapy
* d) Counter transference
* e) Transactional analysis

Answer - b

104. A person with agoraphobia is best described as an individual who

* a) Displays suicidal behavior in stressful situations
* b) Shows little regard for social norms
* c) Suffers from an irrational fear and avoidance of public places
* d) Suffers from chronic fatigue and paranoia in social situations
* e) Shows excessive mood swings without warning

Answer - c

105. An individual, who experiences major distortions of reality, is most likely suffering from which of the following types of disorders.

* a) Anxiety
* b) Mood
* c) Adjustment
* d) Schizophrenic
* e) Bipolar

Answer - d

106. Which of the following sets of numbers has the largest standard deviation?

* a) -2, -1, 0, +1, +2
* b) 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2.00, 2.25, 2.50, 2.75, 3.00
* c) 2, 6, 10, 14, 18
* d) 5.756, 5.765, 5.890, 5.895, 5.923
* e) 91, 92, 93, 94, 95

Answer - c

107. The reliability of a test, is best indicated by which of the following?

* a) The difficulty of the test for the intended population of test takers
* b) The spread of scores on the test
* c) The extent to which scores on the test correlate with a different measure of performance
* d) The degree to which scores on the test form a normal distribution
* e) The consistency of scores on repeated administrations of the test

Answer - e

108. Which of the following best illustrates a humanistic approach to personality?

* a) Establishing gender schema in the development of sex roles
* b) Recognizing the importance of unconscious forces and biological instincts
* c) Using functional analyses to specify external variables that regulate behavior
* d) Emphasizing personal growth and achievement of individual potential
* e) Exploring the childhood roots of behavior

Answer - d

109. According to psychoanalytic theory, one of the important functions of the ego is to

* a) Facilitate gratification of desires at an appropriate time
* b) Govern behavior prior to the development of the superego and the id
* c) Achieve immediate gratification of desires
* d) Satisfy the demands of the superego
* e) Act as the conscience of the individual

Answer - a

110. In which of the following Piagetian stages are, propositional reasoning most likely to be used?

* a) Secondary circular reactions
* b) Preoperational
* c) Formal operations
* d) Concrete operations
* e) Internalization of schemes

Answer - c

111. In psychology, which of the following is most appropriate for identifying cause and effect?

* a) Participant observation
* b) Survey methodology
* c) The case study
* d) Experimentation
* e) Co-relational techniques

Answer - d

112. The region of the brain most involved in the experience of emotions is the

* a) Cerebellum
* b) Basal ganglia
* c) Limbic system
* d) Reticular activating system
* e) Parasympathetic nervous system

Answer - c

113. Which part of the cerebral cortex receives information about temperature, pressure, touch, and pain?

* a) Motor cortex
* b) Prefrontal cortex
* c) Temporal lobe
* d) Occipital lobe
* e) Parietal lobe

Answer - e

114. Visual negative afterimages are one result of

* a) Sensory adaptation
* b) Simultaneous contrast
* c) Spatial summation
* d) Brightness oversensitivity
* e) Color intensity

Answer - a

115. During REM sleep, which of the following is most likely to occur?

* a) Slowed respiration
* b) Sleepwalking
* c) Stable blood pressure
* d) Decreased heart rate
* e) Suppressed muscle tone

Answer - e

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116. Which of the following illustrates a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement?

* a) Receiving five dollars weekly for completing household chores
* b) Receiving a grade of A on every paper submitted in a course
* c) Winning the lottery after playing many times
* d) Receiving a dollar for each mile completed in a charity walkathon
* e) Being given increased use of the family car after reaching age 18

Answer - c

117. The concept of functional fixedness refers to the fact that

* a) Experts solve problems intuitively while beginners solve them by trial and error
* b) Solutions to problems often occur suddenly after an incubation period
* c) Individuals differ in their ability to visualize how objects will appear when rotated in space
* d) Individuals often do not see unusual uses or applications for familiar objects
* e) Learning under partial reinforcement is very resistant to extinction

Answer - d

118. This past year Donna was promoted from eighth to ninth grade and was assigned a new school locker with a new combination. Donna has found that she has trouble remembering her new combination because it is similar to her old one. The memory problem Donna is experiencing is most probably a result of

* a) Sensory memory decay
* b) Proactive interference
* c) Retroactive interference
* d) State-dependent memory
* e) Encoding failure

Answer - b

119. Current research suggests that a sense of self-efficacy is most likely to be associated with

* a) A high degree of social compliance
* b) A low threshold for emotional arousal
* c) A stable external attribution style
* d) An external locus of control
* e) An internal locus of control

Answer - e

120. According to Erik Erikson, the major developmental task during adolescence is to achieve a sense of

* a) Competence
* b) Responsibility
* c) Integrity
* d) Identity
* e) Intimacy

Answer - d