1. What is file fragmentation in disks?

Some times called 'file system aging'is the inability of a
file system to lay out related data sequentially
(contiguously), an inherent phenomenon in storage-backed
file systems that allow in-place modification of their
contents. It is a special case of data fragmentation.

2. Tell me three categories of hazard?

elictrical hazard >>>as ESD
mechanical hazard>>> as haeavy materials hazards
chemical hazard >>> as battery liquides

3. Explain the booting process of a general computer?

Computer is powered on -> Power On Self Test (POST) is done
to check all the hardware -> BIOS (detects the devices like,
hard-disk, sets the date and time etc.) -> MBR (locates the
first location of boot-loader and starts booting the
boot-loader) -> boot-loader (locates the OS and starts
loading the OS).

4. Why are CD and DVD media better than floppy disks?

Floopy Disc store data Less than 200MB CD,DVD's are more
than 200MB
CD-700MB
DVD-4.3to 8.5GB

5. Data can be stored permanently in computer through what?

Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, refers to computer. Memory can refer to other forms of fast but temporary storage. ... The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them as required. ... The CPU firstly sends a number through an address bus, a number called memory address...

6. What are 4 parameters between node A and node B, to bring a PCM link up between them?

The four parameters between node A and node B, to bring a
PCM link up between them are
1.DPC(Destination Point Code) and OWNSP

2.Signaling Link set.

3.Network ID(NAT0 & NAT1)

4.PCM channel on which link is creating

7. Explain how many types tcp/ip protocol?

Tow types of tcp/ip protocol is two types tcp/ipv4 & tcp/ipv6.
tcp/ipv4 it is 32 bit now a days it is used.
tcp/ipv6 it is 128 bits it is advancd technology.

8. What is the full form of D-link?

full form of D-link is diagonal link . this link actually
used to connect the STP pairs within the same network .

9. What is the sequence of Cross cable for connect 2 computer?

there r so many types of cross cables this is Standard cross cable :-
white.orange ------ White green
orange ------ green
white.green ------ white.orange
blue ------ blue
white.blue ------ white blue
gree ------ orange
white.brown ------ white brown
brown ------ brown

10. What is the difference between IAM and SAM?

IAM(Initial Address Message)contains the information
requried for setup call.For a basic call it is a first
message send to Destination.
SAM(subsequent address message)exactly it is overlap calls
address.
SAM message has to be sent in the scenario when suppose a
subscriber dialed a number 9321353536.
SSP send the IAM message to there destination without
reading the 353536. I.e originating SSP looks 9321 and
sends the IAM message to their respective Destination.
And SAM to be send with rest dialed digit.

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