1. Explain what are input variables?

Input variables or signal factors are those that can be set at the desired levels by the experimenter.
That is, these variables can be controlled during the experiment and at the design stage and or in the actual production stage.

2. Tell me how can we obtain accurate estimates of experimental errors and the effects of the input variables on the response variables

Experimental runs under identical conditions should be replicated a suffi-cient number of times to obtain accurate estimates of experimental errors and the effects of the input variables on the response variables

3. Do you know what is the expansion for ASQC

American Society for Quality Control

4. How many parameters are there in BETA Distribution?

A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4

BETA Distribution has four parameters: a and b, which are, respectively, the minimum and maximum values that a beta random variable can assume, and g and h, which are the shape parameters.

5. Tell me why is ‘BETA' Distribution more flexible probability density function compared to the normal distribution?

The beta distribution is a more flexible probability density function compared to the normal distribution because it can accommodate different ranges (not always from α to + α , as in the normal distribution) and different shapes from left skew

6. Explain what are the basic forms of variation?

The Basic forms of variation are Assignable variations and Coomon Variations

7. Explain who is the Customer of a Process?

In Process Improvement, we define the customer as the next person in line whoever receives the output or value of the product or service.

8. Do you know what is a Process?

It process the output to the customer service by the agent regarding the product or output of the severices.

9. Tell me is there any difference in performance of Quality Center over Test Director?

Quality Center has the same functions as test-director it is the difference of the Lay-out or appearence can also be called as cosmetic difference

T.D:- Test cases to be written on word/excel

Q.C :- directly write test cases

Quality Center is the updated version of a Test Director, with more speed.There is not much of a difference between test-director and quality center

10. Please differentiate between product quality and process quality?

product quality means we concentrate always final quality but in case of process quality we set the process parameter

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11. Explain what are the roles of Quality Assurance?

QA people roles will be do the auditing to make sure that in testing, everything has happened as expected (proper documents created, have been they tracked in exact time, are all the documents stored in share path?....etc) so that they are making sure about the process which delivers the quality products.

12. Explain what are the three measures in common use in Quality?

The Three Measures of Common use in Quality Control is Mean, Median and Mode
The three commonly used measures in quality control are Mean (also called as Average), Median (is the value that divides a series of ordered observations so that the number of items above it equals to the number below it) and Mode (is the value that occurs with the highest frequency).

13. Tell me what is BLACKOUT PHASE in software development life cycle model?

The maintenance phase is considered to be the blackout phase. Maintenance is the last stage of the software development life cycle. After the product has been released, the maintenance phase keeps the software up to date with environment changes and changing user requirements. It is called the blackout phase because the system is not accessible and is said to "black out" during maintenance.

14. how to do Quality Controlling in Garments, cosmetics & perfumes?

Here's a simplified response:

1) Begin by learning about the products and services; gain domain knowledge
2) Understand workflow and processes throughout the product life cycles
3) Determine where defects are caused in these workflows and processes
4) Establish checkpoints at these junctures
5) Establish reliable methods of defect detection
6) Establish quality standards and targets for quality improvement
7) Tie Quality Control effort to organization's cost and profitability
8) Report findings

15. Tell me what does LSL mean in Control charts?

Lower specification limit (LSL)

Also known as the lower control limit (LCL).

16. What does 6 Sigma represent ?

A) Meaning 99.999997% perfect; only 3.4 defects in a million.
B) Meaning 5.6 defects in a million
C) Defect of one sixth of the product is accepted
D) None of the above

A) Meaning 99.999997% perfect; only 3.4 defects in a million.

17. Explain what does phase I and phase II mean?

The answer to this question depends on its context. If you are referring to the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC), then the answer still depends on the model you are referring to. The number and nature of phases varies greatly between software development models. Generally, the phases of software development are:

Phase 1: Planning (a.k.a. the Requirements Phase)
Phase 2: Design
Phase 3: Implementation
Phase 4: Verification
Phase 5: Maintenance

18. Tell me what are all the different metrics that can be captured in Software Testing?

different type of metrics captured
Defect Density- no of defects par KLOC
Defect Severity distribution- which measured in term of defect severity
Defect Removal Effectiveness- total number of defects prior to delivery
Review Effectiveness

19. Explain what is a Range in the Control Chart?

Accepted practice uses a width of three standard deviations around the population mean ( 3) to establish the control limits for control chart.Anything that falls between the range of ( 3) is teh common cause of variation & anything that falls out of the range of ( 3) is special cause of variation

20. Tell me what is Defect Rejection Ratio (DRR) and Defect Leackage Ratio (DLR)?

DRR = # of Defects Rejected/Tester to assess the tester performance

DRR = # of Defects Rejected/module to assess the module complexity

DRR = # of Defects Rejected/Team/Project to assess the team performance.

and

DLR = # of Defects uncovered/Tester

DLR = # of Defects uncovered/Module

DLR = # of Defects uncovered/Project

( Uncovered- Defects missed out by the testing team)

21. Explain the following costs: Requirement Analysis Rs1000, Code Review Rs500, Review of User Documents Rs600, Continuing Education Programs Rs800, Design Rs400, Then what is the Cost of Quality?

What is the cost the business would have to incur if a big error was missed if these steps were not followed properly? Damages in terms of money (cost of litigation, regulatore claims, cost of fixing those bugs) and to the brand name of the company (open to discussion).
For me, that is the cost of Quality

22. How to Assure Quality Control?

The answer to this question depends on what it is you are attempting to control. For example, it is much easier to assess and control quality in a manufacturing facility than it is to assure quality control in the software industry.

Quality Control in the software industry refers to the art and practice of testing. Any test effort that strives to identify and report defects in order to improve products and services is practicing Quality Control.

So how can we assure Quality Control? By establishing test processes that prove to deliver products and services that customers require at a level of quality that they demand. And who are these customers? Your company and clients, of course.

23. Explain what are p-charts?

the p-chart is a type of control chart used to monitor the proportion of nonconforming units in a sample, where the sample proportion nonconforming is defined as the ratio of the number of nonconforming units to the sample size

24. The ________ distribution is oftenused as a model for the number of defects in a manufactured item.

A) Random
B) Acceptance
C) 100%
D) Binomial

D) Binomial

25. Tell me why do we use DOE?

The design of experiments may be used to help improve the capability of a process by identifying the process and product variables that affect the mean and the variance of the quality characteristic(s) of the product.

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26. Explain when is a process said to be accurate?

If the average of all measurements falls relatively close to an understood point (on target), then the process is said to be accurate.

27. Tell me what is an USL in a Control Chart?

USL is Upper Specification limit. This is the the acceptable level and defined by Customer. beyond which the product is rejected.

28. Explain the difference between Quality Assurance, Quality Control and Audit Function?

Quality assurance is planed and systematic set of activities necessary to provide adequate confidence that products/services will confirm to the specified requirements. It is a staff function, Defect prevention based.

Quality control is the process in which product quality is compared with applicable standards and action will be taken when non conformance occurred. It is a line function, Defect design based.

29. Tell me what is the difference between quality assurance and quality control?

Quality Assurance :

- It is a Assurance activity,emphasizing on the standards and procedures to be followed while developing an application
- It is a Preventive action taken before hand to ensure the product that developed are defect free

- It is a systematic actions necessary to provide enough confidence that a product or service will satisfy the given requirements for quality.

Quality Control

- It is a Corrective action
- Inspection if the developed application follows the standards and procedures by using the checklists.

30. How RTM will be helpful for the QC team?

There is nothing called as a bad defect. If the defect is not valid( in terms if it is the actual requirement) then it is considered as invalid and not a bad defect.

31. What is bad defect? why do we write bad defects?

Secondly when we go for the execution phase, and when the tester logs a defect it will first be reviewed or a triage meeting we be done to validate if the defect is valid or not.

32. How many types of reviews that we have in our testing?

Generally after the tester writes the Test cases it is reviewed by the peer and then by the lead, sometimes we may also have a review by having walkthrough with the Architect and Business Analyst.

33. Explain what are the elements of a QC plan?

The answer to this question depends on industry, company and/or project. In our software company, the closest thing to a Quality Control plan are our Test Standards and Test Plans.

The elements of our Test Plans are:

1) Introduction
- Purpose
- Product description
- System architecture
2) Scope
- Test coverage
- Features to be tested (in scope)
- Features not to be tested (out of scope)
- Compatibility matrix
3) Test strategy
- Test objectives
- Test approach
- Test environment
- System dependencies
- Test tools
- Assumptions
- Risks
4) Process
- Test process and guidelines
- Priority and Severity defined
- Pass/fail criteria
- Test entry/exit criteria
- Test resources
- Deliverables required for testing
- Roles and responsibilities
- Approvals and sign off

34. Explain what is the differences between I.S.O and C.M.M levels?

The CMM is a way to communicate capabilities.
The ISO is a way to communicate the process.

35. How to track bug and report through Quality Control dept?

according to me i track bug by defect tracking tool and i report it through defect life cycle. i i was wrong please correct me

36. What does DOE stands for?

A) Design of Engineering
B) Design of Excellance
C) Design of Experiments
D) Design of Engines

Design of experiments

37. Explain what are Noice Variables?

Noise variable factors either cannot be controlled or are difficult and or expensive to control during the design or actual production stage.

38. Tell me what is meant by risk? how you can avoid the risks?

Risk can be anything that leads to failure / defect / error in the apllication or process.

We can avoid risk by applying proper risk matrix in the process.Risk Matrix shows the controls within application systems used to reduce the identified risk, and in what segment of the application those risks exist.

Consider,Team members are leaving from the organization in the middle of the project is the risk for the Manager.For that he can take the preventive action by ask for the bond from the employee or can have the countable backups in the project.

39. Tell me when do we use a c-chart?

Control charts are suitable for tracking items such as:

Production failures

Defects by life cycle phase

Complaint/failures by application/software

Response time to change request

Cycle times/delivery times

Mean time to failure

40. Tell me what are the activities that are involved in Software Quality Control?

The activities that are involved in Software Quality Control are Reviews and Testing.

Reviews:

a. Review of requirement.
b. Review of design.
c. Review of code.
d. Review of deployment plan .
e. Review of test plan.
f. Review of test cases.

Testing:

a. Unit Testing
b. Integration Testing
c. System Testing
d. Acceptance Testing

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41. Explain Software Quality Control Testing?

a. Unit Testing
b. Integration Testing
c. System Testing
d. Acceptance Testing

42. Explain Software Quality Control Reviews?

a. Review of requirement.
b. Review of design.
c. Review of code.
d. Review of deployment plan .
e. Review of test plan.
f. Review of test cases.

43. Explain what are the Project Control Activities?

The following are the activities of project control:

- Verify the integrity of the database files.

- Check the transcription errors while inputting and referencing the data.

- Verify the data consistency.

- Perform the internal review of documents.

- Perform the completeness check.

- Compare the existing results with previous results.

44. Explain the benefits of Software Quality Control?

Following are the benefits of SQC:

- Increased productivity of the development team.

- Improved Product Quality: Test statistics and defect tracking are more precise and up to date.

- Decreased re-work costs as the detection of defects are found earlier in the software project development lifecycle in every stage.

- Increased confidence levels in existing product management and future product development.

- Increased credibility as the software produced will be highly qualitative.

45. What are software control views?

Transcendental View : Quality can be recognized and not defined.
User View: Quality as suitable for the needs.
Product View : Quality as related to the inherent characteristics of the product.
Value-based View: Quality is dependent on the number of customers those who are willing to pay for the software product.
Development View : Quality that is in conformance to specification.

46. Explain what are the changes in a company when it receives ISO 9001 certification?

- Quality being part of every day operations, is the internal impact.

- Quality becomes as a part of setting and managing the objectives, practices.

- The open up of operations to customer audits, is the external impact.

- Procedures and record-keeping improve dramatically.

- The implementation of this standards will obviously takes the work to keep audits and the appropriate follow-ups fluent.

47. Tell me what is the process of Software Quality Measurement?

- Quantifying the dimensions of the software product, to what extent the rate of the product is met.

- Qualitative and quantitative approaches provide the aggregate view of the product.

- Linear continuum need to be supplemented by the identification of the critical programming bugs.

- Consequences that might lead to catastrophic outages need to be properly identified.

- The critical application characteristics measurement involves the structural attribute measurement of the application architecture, coding, in-line documentation.

48. Tell me who are involved in Software Quality Control?

- Project Manager – Controls the software engineering work performed during the software development.

- Designer – Assists the team to complete the overall design of the software project implementation.

- Technical Advisors – Supports to implement all technical aspects and imposes the quality practices.

- Checkers/Testers - Performs the complete testing of the software project at various levels.

- Quality Assurance Manager – Conforms the software product is as per the expected result with proper guidance and co-ordination with the development team.

49. What is Software Functional Quality?

- SFQ is pertaining to conformance to the functional requirements.

- The SFQ is measured by the level of end user satisfaction.

- The usability and the intuitiveness and responsiveness of the use cases are referred, so as to determine the simplicity / complexity of the operations.

- SFQ compliances with the original design, and desired testability.

- Example: Voice of the Customer can be compared with the level of intuitiveness and responsiveness to measure the quality.

50. Explain what are the software size requirements in Software Quality Control?

There are two types of software sizes:

Technical Size:

- The most technical sizing method is measured in terms of Line of Code per technology.

- The number of lines include in functions, files, classes and tables.

- These are computed with backfiring the Function Points.

Functional Size:

- The very common function size is Function Point Analysis.

- FPA is all about measuring the software deliverables.

- FPA is based on the requirements of the user and presents accurate representation of developer and estimator.

- FPA reflects the functionality that is delivered to the client.

- FPA involves in identifying and weighting of inputs, outputs and data storage.

51. What is Software Functional Size?

- The very common function size is Function Point Analysis.

- FPA is all about measuring the software deliverables.

- FPA is based on the requirements of the user and presents accurate representation of developer and estimator.

- FPA reflects the functionality that is delivered to the client.

- FPA involves in identifying and weighting of inputs, outputs and data storage.

52. What is Software Technical Size?

- The most technical sizing method is measured in terms of Line of Code per technology.

- The number of lines include in functions, files, classes and tables.

- These are computed with backfiring the Function Points.

53. Tell me what are the best practices for assessing performance efficiency of a software product?

- Practices of implementing Application Architecture.

- Interactions with remote resources should be appropriate.

- Proper management of memory, network and disk space.

- Best coding practices.

- Proper and appropriate data access performance and management.

- Appropriate compliance with Object Oriented and Structured Programming practices.
- Appropriate compliance with SQL Programming best practices.

54. Explain what are the best practices for assessing security a software product?

- Implementing proper Application Architecture Practices.

- Design compliance of multi-layer components and their functionality.

- Input validation, Cross Site Scripting best practices

- Proper handling of error and exceptions.

- Proper access controls to the program and system functions.

55. Tell me what are the Software Engineering practices and attributes that are required for assessing the reliability of good architectural and coding practices?

The following are the SE Practices and attributes:

- Coding practices / standards.

- Practices of Application Architecture.

- Determining the complexity of the algorithms.

- Determining the multi-layer design compliance.

- Ratio of component and pattern usability.

- Determining the software to avoid the patterns which would lead to unexpected results / behaviors.

- Determination of data integrity and consistency.

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56. Do you know Quality Control?

- Includes the activities that are designed to determine the level of quality.

- QC is a reactive means which measures and monitors the quality

- Includes operational activities and techniques to meet the quality needs.

- QC involves in verifying the desired quality levels.

57. Explain what are the differences between Quality Control and Quality Assurance?

Quality Assurance:

- Focused on planning, documentation and agreeing certain guidelines that ensures quality.

- The outcomes of Quality Assurance are quality plans, inspection plan, test plan.

- QA is to prevent defects from entering into solutions.

Quality Control:

- Includes the activities that are designed to determine the level of quality.

- QC is a reactive means which measures and monitors the quality

- Includes operational activities and techniques to meet the quality needs.

- QC involves in verifying the desired quality levels.

58. Explain Quality Assurance?

- Focused on planning, documentation and agreeing certain guidelines that ensures quality.

- The outcomes of Quality Assurance are quality plans, inspection plan, test plan.

- QA is to prevent defects from entering into solutions.

59. Explain the Software Control Methods?

- A paradigm that is Goal Question centric.

- A method that control the overall risk.

- Quality Control that involves Plan, Perform, Check, Action Model.

- Complete Software Quality Control.

- Software Development Method that involve the Spiral Model.

60. Explain what are the factors that influence software quality?

- Clear purpose of the product. All documentation must be clearly written.

- Completeness to the fullest development of the product.

- Only needed information and minimum lines of code should present. It is important as the memory is limited.

- The software product should be portable, so that computers of various configurations would support the execution of the product.

- Product should be maintainable, so that the updating activity can be continued throughout the life time of the software product.

61. Explain what are the quality characteristics of ISO 9126?

- Functionality : Functions that satisfies the specified requirements.

- Reliability : A set of attributes that are capable of software maintenance under specified conditions.

- Usability : A set of attributes that is capable of effort bearing on individual's performance.

- Efficiency: A set of attributes that are capable of balancing the relationship between performance of software and the resources used.

- Maintainability: A set of attributes that are capable of bearing the effort required for specific modifications.

- Portability: A set of attributes those are capable to bear on the ability of the software to be transferred on another environment.

62. Explain what are Software Quality Control factors?

- Functionality - To determine the required functionality in the software

- Usability – To determine the ease of the software is to use.

- Maintainability – To determine whether the modifications of the software can be made.

- Efficiency - To determine whether the software is efficient.

- Portability – To determine whether the software can be transferred to another environment.

- Reliability – To determine the reliability of the software as per the client's needs.

63. Tell me what Software Quality Control Nomenclature is implemented for a software product?

Software Quality Control Nomenclature:

- Verifying: comparing the code predictions

- Validating: Comparing the prediction of code with test data

- Version Testing: Comparing output of the current version with output of the previous version

- Installation Testing: Comparing the result with newly installed code to the sample result code

- Development Code: Code tested only by the software developer.

- Alpha Code: Testing of the software product internally by selected users.

- Beta Code: Code testing internally by a large numbers of users.

- Released Code: Well tested and documented code that is officially distributed.

64. What is Software Quality Control?

A set of activities for ensuring the quality of the software product is known as Software Quality Control.
The focus is on identifying the defects in the original products produced.
It is limited only for Testing phase of SDLC.
Software Quality Control is governed by Software Quality Assurance.
Software Quality Control is detection oriented.
The scope relates to specific product.

65. Tell me what is software control plan? What are the characters of the software control plan?

- Quality Control Plan is to analyze the operations needed for the fulfillment of the software project requirements.

- Quality Control Plan ensures all the specifications are met and the quality of the product is maintained

The characteristics of the Quality Plan are as follows:

- Consistent: The plan should adhere to the guidelines and the specific standards.

- Complete: The plan should include project requirements, features and essentially the project plan documentation.

- Clear: The plan should be transparent to the developer and also to all the stake holders of the project requirements.

- Correct: The details of the project should be very clear to all stakeholders about project delivery date / postponement / cancellation.

66. Software Quality Assurance Interview Questions Part Four:

Your company is about to roll out an e-commerce application. It's not possible to test the application on all types of browsers on all platforms and operating systems. What steps would you take in the testing environment to reduce the business risks and commercial risks?
In your organization, testers are delivering code for system testing without performing unit testing. Give an example of test policy:

Policy statement
Methodology
Measurement

Testers in your organization are performing tests on the deliverables even after significant defects have been found. This has resulted in unnecessary testing of little value, because re-testing needs to be done after defects have been rectified. You are going to update the test plan with recommendations on when to halt testing. Wwhat recommendations are you going to make?
How do you measure:
Test Effectiveness
Test Efficiency
You found out the senior testers are making more mistakes then junior testers; you need to communicate this aspect to the senior tester. Also, you don't want to lose this tester. How should one go about constructive criticism?
You are assigned to be the test lead for a new program that will automate take-offs and landings at an airport. How would you write a test strategy for this new program?

67. Software Quality Assurance Interview Questions Part Three:

Tell me about any quality efforts you have overseen or implemented. Describe some of the challenges you faced and how you overcame them.
How do you deal with environments that are hostile to quality change efforts?
In general, how do you see automation fitting into the overall process of testing?
How do you promote the concept of phase containment and defect prevention?
If you come onboard, give me a general idea of what your first overall tasks will be as far as starting a quality effort.
What kinds of testing have you done?
Have you ever created a test plan?
Have you ever written test cases or did you just execute those written by others?
What did your base your test cases?
You are the test manager starting on system testing. The development team says that due to a change in the requirements, they will be able to deliver the system for SQA 5 days past the deadline. You cannot change the resources (work hours, days, or test tools). What steps will you take to be able to finish the testing in time?

68. Software Quality Assurance Interview Questions Part Two:

How do you scope, organize, and execute a test project?
What is the role of QA in a development project?
What is the role of QA in a company that produces software?
Define quality for me as you understand it
Describe to me the difference between validation and verification.
Describe to me what you see as a process. Not a particular process, just the basics of having a process.
Describe to me when you would consider employing a failure mode and effect analysis.
Describe to me the Software Development Life Cycle as you would define it.
What are the properties of a good requirement?
How do you differentiate the roles of Quality Assurance Manager and Project Manager?

69. Software Quality Assurance Interview Questions Part One:

How would you categorize the severity of defects?
Where do you imagine you will be spending the bulk of your time?
When do you know you have tested enough?
What types of documents would you need for QA, QC, and Testing?
What did you include in a test plan?
Describe any bug you remember.
What is the purpose of the testing?
What do you like (not like) in this job?
What is quality assurance?
What is the difference between QA and testing?