This is the most simple question and a crucial one to answer. With this question, the employer will get to know the motivation and the drive for you to be in this area of work. As a UI designer, what are the crucial aspects you like about it from user testing to designing new layouts and creating interesting visual language, anything which can hook you up in it will be the best answer.
UI design is not an art, it requires not only design acumen but a business mindset to deliver the best results. While answering this question, ensure to back them up with relevant and strong examples and reasoning as to why a specific part of UI design attracts you. Include how you ensure to keep up to date on it and how you intend to improvise on to make it better day by day.
A category is a way of adding additional methods to a class without extending it. It is often used to add a collection of related methods. A common use case is to add additional methods to built in classes in the Cocoa frameworks. For example adding async download methods to the UIImage class.
An employer will ask you this question to try and see how committed you are to the industry – and how seriously you actually take your role. A great answer here might be to say that you're part of lots of LinkedIn UX groups and actively take part in discussions and you also read popular UX blogs such as UXHow, UXMatters and Usability Geek every week.
Everyone has a different design process (and that's okay). What will matter is your ability to describe your process and explain the rationale behind your approach. It's a good idea to have a standard ‘go-to' process in mind, yet it's important to acknowledge your design context. Different UX situations inevitably call for different UX processes. It's a strength to understand your environment and determine a process that's best fits for your situation.
Ask your interviewer for specifics. Respond to a particular design problem the company is facing or talk about a process you have used in a particular situation.
Through all my processes, my one constant is to ask the right questionsbefore designing. It frames the way I approach a problem and guides me toward the appropriate UX strategy and tools going forward.
The answer needs to mention the core concerns that a UI designer faces in day to day work. UI design is quite a challenging time because every day something new is coming up in the web world and keeping up with that regularly requires immense attentiveness to the information. A new button, link, scrolling, icons which keep the user interested. Knowing what will attract the user and keep them hooked to it regularly is one of the biggest challenges they have. A UI design talk never goes without talking about web forms.
Understanding what will work best is of utmost important. The client differences is a challenge which every designer face. Talking about how these differences are bridged keeping in mind the client requirement along with the design value and aesthetics of the product.
Having self-awareness of how you work and demonstrating flexibility is key. Consider the company you're interviewing with - the size, what you know about the culture, and how you might fit into work dynamics. Also be true to yourself. The interviewer will be looking for how you play with others and determine if you're a good culture fit.
When thinking about this question, I sometimes draw a graph mapping out my energy levels throughout the day. I've discovered I like ‘heads-down' time in the morning, collaborative time after lunch, (snacks throughout the day) and time to consume content and find inspiration in the late afternoons. I try to balance my own patterns while being aware of others and the dynamics around me.
As a UI designer, they are one of the crucial members of a team built by UX designer, developer and much more. While answering this question, one need to mention how a day begins with discussing with the team about the work, problem, key areas to focus on. This will provide an idea that a UI designer is a team player and is in constant touch with their team to build an effective design.
They need to mention about how they visualize the idea and how to plan to achieve it. Understanding the limitations and the concerns in the design, especially after discussing with the UX designer. How they plan to tackle these issues with an effective result. Also, don't forget to allot some time in your day, to read about the newer developments happening in the industry.
Needless to say an employer will ask you this question to try and determine how serious you are about the role and the company. Again, the right answer will depend on your personal situation – but it's important to avoid citing reasons which could be seen as purely selfish eg. amazing salary, excellent benefits or 30 days holiday a year. Why? Because while they might be the things that attracted you to the role, they also suggest that you're only interested in what the company can do for you, rather than the other way around.
A better answer would be to say that you were keen to work for a company which has a great reputation within the user experience industry and has a great range of clients on its books – and that this role offers the perfect new challenge for your career.
When thinking about this question, consider your audience and have a range of apps/websites that can demonstrate a diversity of aspects you find important to design. When I was interviewing, I chose SquareCash, Lyft, and Meetup - all experiences I loved for different reasons.
SquareCash represented simplicity in design. It made money transactions painless and solved a problem I didn't realize I had. Lyft represented a peer-to-peer service that was trust-worthy and delightful and leveraged local communities to foster sharing in my hometown (San Francisco) and beyond. We are what we do | Meetup represented a platform for community at scale and had provided a tribe for me no matter where I was in the world.
While touching on UI elements, try to paint a picture of your values as a designer. By choosing apps/websites that highlight your interests and elegantly solve your pains, you'll make a memorable impression.
Every team or even no two people can have the same opinion about something. As a UI designer, it is crucial to work in a team and be a strong team player, but it is natural that differences crop up in a team. Generally, the differences tend to come up a lot between a UI and UX designer in a team, since both have a different perception of their work and they want to be the alpha in the team.
Therefore, it is important for the employer to know how the designer will manage the differences that will come up. The process of communication with the team and effectiveness of the same matters the most. So as not to hamper with the result and finding the best solution for the problems.
For young designers, this can feel like the toughest question to answer. Without a lot of design experience, what you can offer is your hustle and a proven willingness to learn. Emphasize it. And don't just talk about it -show it. Point to personal projects, blog posts, and other forms of commitment to design that you've taken.
As a young designer, you've taken an enormous leap into a new career. Talk about this experience and share the strides you've taken to get to where you are now and where you want to be. You have enormous potential - be confident as you go.
The future of UI design is immense as the world is shifting more and more towards internet life, from computers to mobile phones. Each day new technology is coming up which is making the life easier for the people. As a UI designer, this question is important to answer as to how do you see yourself in coming future. This is another question for the employer as they can learn about it if you are planning to switch jobs and companies or for how long you intend to be part of the employer.
The clarity of your future gives a clear idea to the employer about your dedication, hard work and efforts you are willing to put in your work and how much of a risk taker you will be.
No matter what role you're interviewing for, an employer will ask this question to see how much ambition you have and what type of company you see yourself working for later in your career. If you really want the job you're interviewing for, you might want to describe yourself working at the company in a much more senior role. This shows that you're keen to progress but that you also see yourself working at that company (or a similar one) for an extended amount of time. Whatever answer you give, it's important to talk about a more senior role – this shows that you're keen to progress and if they employ you, you won't just be happy treading water.
Again, this is another question which gives the employer an insight who you are as a designer and once again, it all comes to down to individual preference. That said; it's important not to choose tasks or processes which could potentially be described as ‘easy'. If you do, there's a chance you could come across as lazy and work-shy. With that in mind; it can be a good idea to choose a number of tasks which range in difficulty so the employer can see that you enjoy being challenged – but try and stick to the truth as much as possible. Why? Because if you say you enjoy doing something which you absolutely hate, the employer will be none the wiser but might end up reworking the role to include more of the aspects which you said you enjoyed but actually hate – not ideal!
When users depend on scrolling as their prime method of exploring data, it may compel the user to spend more time on your web page, thus increasing engagement. With the popularity of social media, massive amounts of data are being consumed; infinite scrolling offers an efficient way to browse that ocean of information without having to wait for pages to preload.
Users tend to have better experiences with scrolling than clicking/tapping. Gesture controls on mobile devices have made scrolling intuitive and easy to use. As a result, the users enjoy a truly responsive experience, regardless of what type of device they're using. The biggest challenge is to maintain good performance in an application or website with infinite scrolling. If we see that the app will use too many resources because of size and volume of images or other types of content, then we need to make sure we try out an alternative approach.
Pagination is a user interface pattern that divides content into separate pages.
Pagination is good when the user is searching for something specific within listed content, not just scanning and consuming the flow of information. Furthermore, the user gets a sense of control. Infinite scrolling is like an endless game, while pagination allows us to visually sort different items. This means that if the user was searching for something on a website then he will quite easily find the necessary information on a paginated interface. Pagination is good for e-commerce sites and apps. When users shop online, they want to be able to come back to the place they left off and continue their shopping.
Pokemon Go changed the rules of the game and created a new trend in mobile design and gaming. The combination of Augmented Reality (AR) and flexibility provided by smartphone platforms helped create a whole new user experience. These emerging technologies will bring monumental changes to digital product design.
The gaps between smart devices (smartphones, tablets, laptops, wearables) are being blurred with each consecutive product generation. Rapidly evolving hardware is bringing AR closer to mainstream users, even though the concept has been around for a while. There are many reasons why the interface will evolve. Designers are no longer limited by technology, their biggest limitation today is their own creativity. It is also important that many of these emerging technologies are reasonably priced, or seamlessly integrated in new devices at no extra cost to the user.
The design process in the future will change. For example, in order to make an interface for VR we need specialist skills, and we need to create UIs in 3D. In addition to designing 3D assets, designers will also have to master certain skills, for example learn some Unity basics, or employ 3D design software.
The ability to empathize and understand the motivation of those you work with is crucial. Engineers, PMs, and other designers all come with their own particular needs and goals and if you can demonstrate your sensitivity to them, you'll be well received.
PMs: I emphasize communication, storytelling, and tradeoffs. PMs manage deadlines, appeal to admins and keep projects running smoothly. Make sure you and your PM are sync'd. Being able to tell a powerful story about your design will also help to make their job easier when trying to persuade other stakeholders.
Designers: Show, don't tell. Focus your attention toward the design problem instead of individual design preferences. Working with other designers is an incredible opportunity for collaboration and can push you to better work. When working with other designers, sometimes I like to practice pair design - it's a great way to develop shared ownership over the work and push your individual design limits.
Before any product features can be decided, you will need to develop a clear picture of what the business goals and user needs for the product are. Explain to the interviewer how a MVP (minimum viable product) could be developed. You can quickly test your hypothesis through user research which will answer these questions:
☛ Who is the user?
☛ Why does the user care if the product exists?
☛ What are the user's goals?
Explain how user research helps to avoid the common pitfall of designing for personal preferences. It is most often the case that the user is not you. Once enough data has been collected from the experiments and the user's goals have been validated, then you can begin to determine how they can be aligned with the goals of the business and therefore how the product features will be prioritized.
Animation has long been used as an eye-catching element that helps differentiate an app from its competitors.
Now, however, more designers are incorporating animation as a functional element that enhances the user experience, to simulate the appearance of interacting with a real object.
Animation is no longer just for games. It also illuminates navigation: Think of a button that toggles a panel of otherwise hidden content, such as a menu. Closing the panel shrinks the menu, where it disappears back into the button. Other examples include zooming content or providing feedback to confirm a user's action.
Functional animation makes app experiences more dynamic and provides a more direct visualization of the user's actions. As smartphones become more advanced, designers are adding HTML5 animation and parallax design to mobile apps to bring a new level of richness and excitement to the mobile user experience.
This is a great question in any programming language and is really designed to see how you problem solve. You're not given much information, but some interviews will slip you more details of the issue as you go along. Start simple:
☛ get the exact steps to reproduce it.
☛ find out the device, iOS version.
☛ do they have the latest version?
☛ get device logs if possible.
Once you can reproduce it or have more information then start using tooling. Let's say it crashes because of a memory leak, I'd expect to see someone suggest using Instruments leak tool. A really impressive candidate would start talking about writing a unit test that reproduces the issue and debugging through it.
Other variations of this question include slow UI or the application freezing. Again the idea is to see how you problem solve, what tools do you know about that would help and do you know how to use them correctly.
Iconography is a visual language used to represent functionality or content. Icons are used when we don't have enough space to display textual content. Therefore, icons are meant to be simple visual elements that are recognized and understood immediately.
In practice, we will encounter both version of these icons. They can appear outlined or filled, but the whole icon set needs to be consistent and employ the same stroke. However, this is something that is more related to visual design. When it comes to UX, one thing is sure. If we use the outlined icons for the normal state, then we should probably use the filled icon for the active state of the button. It's important to indicate which section is currently active by highlighting the icon in a specific way. Although we could change the color of the outline, this approach is not ideal when we are dealing with a light background, so it's better to use the filled/outline approach. This makes recognition of active tabs and controls more straightforward. Icons at the end are here to serve as navigation to other section of the app.
There's no right or wrong answer to this, but it's great way of seeing if you understand the benefits and challenges with each approach. Here's the common answers I hear:
☛ Storyboard's and Xib's are great for quickly producing UI's that match a design spec. They are also really easy for product managers to visually see how far along a screen is.
☛ Storyboard's are also great at representing a flow through an application and allowing a high-level visualization of an entire application.
☛ Storyboard's drawbacks are that in a team environment they are difficult to work on collaboratively because they're a single file and merge's become difficult to manage.
☛ Storyboards and Xib files can also suffer from duplication and become difficult to update. For example if all button's need to look identical and suddenly need a color change, then it can be a long/difficult process to do this across storyboards and xibs.
☛ Programmatically constructing UIView's can be verbose and tedious, but it can allow for greater control and also easier separation and sharing of code. They can also be more easily unit tested.
Most developers will propose a combination of all 3 where it makes sense to share code, then re-usable UIViews or Xib files.
Due to the fact that mobile design is constrained by the small size of mobile devices and their displays, it's of vital importance that we present the information properly, and adequately prioritize content. It is very important to make sure this is done at this stage, before we proceed to mockup design, because that's a matter of UX rather than UI design.
It's also important to decide which information we provide first and which one will remain hidden. In order avoid hiding content, we can use different patterns like tabs, filters, and so on, while still providing the user with the most important information at the time. It's a bad practice to use hamburger menu even though sometimes we are forced to use it due to the massive amount of data that needs to be displayed. Based on research, we can conclude that the hamburger icon easily gets “lost” in the design, because many users tend to start scrolling immediately. It's in our nature to scroll and that why it's important to make sure everything important is presented to the user at a glance.
According to a study by Nielsen/Norman Group, a global leader in user experience research, training, and consulting, hidden navigation patterns (like hamburger menus) decrease content discoverability by 21% and increase the amount of time it takes to actually use navigation by 2 seconds on average.
Our goal should be to provide as much relevant content on the front page as possible, without hiding it behind another layer of navigation. It's more likely that users will scroll rather than click on the navigation button.
Unfortunately, this is not the best solution for navigation due to the fact that the idea behind guidelines is to have only one function that handles that action. Otherwise, the user can be confused. You need to avoid inconsistency in your UI. Elements that have similar functions should also have a similar appearance. People often assume that there must be a reason behind design inconsistencies they notice, and they're apt to spend time trying to figure it out.
Native or responsive is usually the first question people ask when they find the terminology unfamiliar. What is the difference from a design perspective?
Mobile apps can be developed natively or as hybrid apps, while mobile-friendly websites can be developed as adaptive or responsive. The basic design process behind all of them is more or less the same. The only thing we need to consider when designing for mobile is that we have a specific set of rules we need to follow. Apple has its own, and so does Google.
When you're designing for iOS or Android, the underlying process is the same. First, we do research that will outline best practices and show us what we can do on a certain platform and what not. Basically, research helps us we learn restrictions and take advantage of possibilities a given field.
Designers are likely to work on both native app and responsive web designs. Native apps are important because we want the user to have them on their dashboard, and this way we want to help users in their everyday activities. Some native apps can work offline while others can't.
Responsive web design is important for SEO and Google indexing. So, if we want to have your project well-ranked on Google, you definitely go for a mobile-friendly responsive design.
This is a great opportunity for you to talk about your passion for UX design and what inspires you in your work. Talk about UX blogs, newsletters, industry leaders, or conferences that you attend or follow. Perhaps you've been to a hackathon or a meetup that motivated you, or perhaps you read a great article on medium that changed the way you practice UX design.
Some of my own favorite UX blogs are:
☛ Usertesting blog
Some influential leaders in the field who you should check out are:
☛ Joe Natoli
☛ Jared Spool
☛ Susan Weinschenk
☛ David Travis
More great resources:
☛ Blogs to follow by User Testing
☛ 20 UX Designers to follow on Twitter
☛ UX books to read
This is a very common task in iOS and a good answer here can cover a whole host of knowledge. The important piece of information in the question is that the images are hosted remotely and they may take time to download, therefore when it asks for “considerations”, you should be talking about:
☛ Only download the image when the cell is scrolled into view, i.e. when cellForRowAtIndexPath is called.
☛ Downloading the image asynchronously on a background thread so as not to block the UI so the user can keep scrolling.
☛ When the image has downloaded for a cell we need to check if that cell is still in the view or whether it has been re-used by another piece of data. If it's been re-used then we should discard the image, otherwise we need to switch back to the main thread to change the image on the cell.
Other good answers will go on to talk about offline caching of the images, using placeholder images while the images are being downloaded.
Input fields are a very important aspect of mobile design. We tend to take them for granted, especially when designing small websites or mobile apps.
When we need to design a corporate website where we have more than one contact form, then we should reconsider and reimagine these small elements. The whole point of doing this makes them invisible to the end-user, allowing users to focus on more important things. We don't want our users to leave at a crucial point in their journey, when they need to input information or maybe even make a purchase. This usually happens on e-commerce websites when the user is required to fill in too many fields in order to complete the transaction. The trend is to streamline the process, and big players are getting involved with mobile wallet solutions as well.
For mobile design, it is important to provide clear, always visible labels for each input field. Clear labels make users feel more confident that they understand information in the right way, promting them to take action.
Data comes in many formats. Of course, we think that you should always try to design input fields in a way that resembles how users typically enter information. For instance, the phone number field can be auto-formatted. This eliminates any formatting ambiguity the customer may have had.
When the user is supposed to enter numbers, we need to ensure that the appropriate numeric keyboard is activated for this field, and make sure that this is implemented consistently throughout the app rather than only for certain tasks but not others.
Again there is no right answer to this, but it's a great way to see how much a person has dug into iOS security. If you're interviewing with a bank I'd almost definitely expect someone to know something about it, but all companies need to take security seriously, so here's the ideal list of topics I'd expect to hear in an answer:
☛ If the data is extremely sensitive then it should never be stored offline on the device because all devices are crackable.
☛ The keychain is one option for storing data securely. However it's encryption is based on the pin code of the device. User's are not forced to set a pin, so in some situations the data may not even be encrypted. In addition the users pin code may be easily hacked.
☛ A better solution is to use something like SQLCipher which is a fully encrypted SQLite database. The encryption key can be enforced by the application and separate from the user's pin code.
Other security best practices are:
☛ Only communicate with remote servers over SSL/HTTPS.
☛ If possible implement certificate pinning in the application to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks on public WiFi.
☛ Clear sensitive data out of memory by overwriting it.
☛ Ensure all validation of data being submitted is also run on the server side.
☛ Not running: The app has not been launched or was running but was terminated by the system.
☛ Inactive: The app is running in the foreground but is currently not receiving events. (It may be executing other code though.) An app usually stays in this state only briefly as it transitions to a different state.
☛ Active: The app is running in the foreground and is receiving events. This is the normal mode for foreground apps.
☛ Background: The app is in the background and executing code. Most apps enter this state briefly on their way to being suspended. However, an app that requests extra execution time may remain in this state for a period of time. In addition, an app being launched directly into the background enters this state instead of the inactive state.
☛ Suspended: The app is in the background but is not executing code. The system moves apps to this state automatically and does not notify them before doing so. While suspended, an app remains in memory but does not execute any code. When a low-memory condition occurs, the system may purge suspended apps without notice to make more space for the foreground app.
30. Tell me when designing for mobile we always try to squish everything down in an attempt to provide as much information as possible. How can you resist the urge to clean up the UI, while still displaying important information?
As we already know, typography is one of the most important things in new media. That's why it's important to make sure we use the right typography at the right time, making everything visible without having to zoom in or out.
It's important to improve legibility by increasing line height or letter spacing. Good, generous whitespace can make some of the messiest interfaces look inviting and simple.
☛ Who are their role models?
☛ Where do they go for inspiration?
☛ How do they keep on top of current design trends?
☛ What's an example of great design (digital or physical)?
☛ What books/exhibitions/conferences or communities do they attend or admire?
☛ As a designer, what do they think is the most important aspect of their job?
☛ Show me a design example where you set out to solve a business problem.
☛ How do you balance design aesthetic with revenue-generating activities on a website?
☛ How do you balance the goals of the end user with those of the business.
☛ What kind of data have you used to validate a design?
☛ Have you created personas before? How did they help you?
☛ Do you have any experience with e-commerce?
☛ Do you have experience with mobile software or hardware?
☛ What is your experience working with web analytics?
☛ How would you do a competitive analysis of two websites?
☛ How would you measure the success of a launched product?
☛ What would you consider a UX Design failure on the newly launched project?
☛ What questions do you need answered before you start designing an experience?
☛ How do you estimate the timeline of your own design process?
☛ You're under a tight deadline and not all features in the project scope can be met in time. How would you decide which features to keep and which to cut?
☛ What is a recent project that you were challenged by, and tell us how you approached the problem?
☛ You want to redesign some part of a website but the client says they don't want to spend the time or money to make the changes. What would you say?
☛ How do you stay current on UX innovations?
☛ Given a situation where there's not enough time to research, what do you do?
☛ What would you do differently if you had more time for research?
☛ What is an instance where you delivered something exceptional, made you really proud of the result?
☛ How would you design an interface for an elevator in a 1000-floor building?
☛ How would you design an ATM?
☛ How would you design a microwave?
☛ Can you estimate how many traffic lights there are in the United States?
☛ Imagine we're designing a kiosk at a transit stop. Its purpose is to let regular commuters refill their transit cards. We have an engineer coming in 20 minutes and he needs a spec. How would you explain how the kiosks works in that time?
☛ How would you describe the Internet to someone who just woke up from a 30-year coma?
☛ What are the advantages and disadvantages of contextual inquiry/field studies when designing an application or website?
☛ How would you walk me through a brief analysis of our home page?
☛ What is an example of a site you think has bad user experience? Why?
☛ What are 3 examples of online products that have a great user experience?
☛ If you had the power to change one feature for a website or application, what would you change?
☛ What do you think makes a great UX designer vs. an average one? What makes you a great UX designer?
☛ What are your thoughts on designing the user experience of a startup vs. a more established brand?
☛ Are you familiar with the idea of a minimum viable product (MVP)?
☛ Is UX only for huge agencies and global brands or can the little guys & gals get involved?
☛ Why should business owners and/or marketing people care about UX?
☛ Now let's say that after 6 months, there is no jump in sales. What is at fault? Normally, sales and/or marketing gets blamed for having the wrong message, appealing to the wrong audience, not enough of this, too much of that. What if the reason for flat-lined sales had to do with user experience?
☛ What's the best way for UX and Marketing teams to work together
☛ What's the downside to omitting UX from the discussion?
☛ Does your UX end once the website or app launch?
☛ Is UX work expensive?
☛ Does it make sense when people say something like “Looking for a UI/UX designer”?
☛ How do you define UX design?
☛ What is your design process? Describe what methods you follow?
☛ What is visual hierarchy?
☛ Can you speak to the difference between information architecture, interaction design, usability and user research?
☛ How do you get into the mindset of a user and anticipate their needs and actions?
☛ Describe to us a basic user experience process. Would that process be different depending on the type of project, for instance responsive website versus mobile app?
☛ How do you know that what you're designing works for the user? Tell us a bit about personas and your approach to research and incorporating research in your work?
☛ What are the basic philosophies or principles that inform your designs
☛ How do you incorporate usability into the design and testing process?
☛ How do you balance business needs and technical restrictions with good design?
☛ Do you have a technical/data-influenced background?
☛ What tools and applications do you use?
☛ What is the most important thing on a page/wireframe? Why?
☛ Do you specialize in wireframing and functionality design, or graphic design? Which do you prefer?
☛ When an engineer says, “Hey, I don't like this design”, what do you do?
☛ What are the advantages and disadvantages of following a web style guide?
☛ Can you explain the process behind each (or a specific) design piece in your portfolio? What research or testing did you do to validate your design decision?
☛ What are your favorite apps? Why?
☛ What is your approach to making websites and platforms accessible to all user groups, including users with visual, hearing, and motor disabilities?
☛ What would you say will be the next big trend in the UX Design industry?
☛ What design trend can you not stand? Why?
☛ How would you define user experience UX design?
☛ Can you speak to the difference between information architecture, interaction design, usability and user research?
☛ When is it relevant to focus on one of these areas vs another?
☛ Describe to us a basic user experience process. Would that process be different depending on the type of project, for instance responsive website versus mobile app?
☛ How do you know that what you're designing works for the user? Tell us a bit about personas and your approach to research and incorporating research in your work?
☛ Tell us a bit about how you undertake user testing?
☛ How do you advocate for usability in your organization?
☛ What would be the most difficult personality for a coworker to have? How would you deal with this?
☛ What would be the most difficult type of client to work with? How would you deal with this?
☛ Have you ever faced a situation in which your feedback/recommendation was not taken? How did you handle the situation?
☛ How do you form positive relationships with teammates or stakeholders?
☛ How do you work with others?
☛ What best practices do you use when working with engineers?
☛ How do you approach working with designers?
☛ How do you approach working with developers?
☛ How have you provided guidance to your clients in the scoping of projects?
☛ How do you deal with stakeholders (e.g., marketers) with really strong perspectives?
☛ What do you do when a stakeholder disagrees with the results of your research?
☛ What is your experience working with people who are unfamiliar with User-Centered Design?
☛ Have you played more of a lead or support role on projects?
☛ What phases of research were you most often involved with?
☛ Have you worked with recruiters?
☛ What is your experience with project management?
☛ What is your experience with project scoping?
☛ Have you managed external research vendors?
☛ What is your ideal work day as a UX designer?
☛ Where do you see yourself in 5–10 years?
☛ How have you previously worked with product managers and engineers?
☛ What are you looking for when it comes to a workplace?
☛ How do you feel about working for a small agency versus a large corporation?
☛ Can you describe a time when the requirements changed in the middle of a project, and how you handled that?
☛ What's your biggest pet peeve when engaging on a UX project?
☛ Have you worked in a Lean or Agile process before? How so?
☛ Do you have a side project you'd like to talk to us about?
☛ What books/exhibitions/conferences or communities do you attend or admire?
☛ Where do you go for inspiration?
☛ How do you keep on top of current design trends?
☛ What attracts you to research?
☛ What is your experience with qualitative research methods? (ethnography, focus groups/group discussions, one-on-one interviewing, contextual inquiry, observational research, etc.)
☛ Since your experience is primarily in qualitative methods, how do you feel about quantitative research?
☛ What skill do you possess that you think you do better than 99.9% of the entire population?
☛ What do you excel at (your superpower) and what can you improve on (your kryptonite)?
☛ What is your research process?
☛ How do you choose which method(s) you're going to use for particular projects?
☛ Which methods and approaches do you think are the most useful or effective?
☛ What is the value of doing contextual research over facility-based research (e.g., focus groups, interviews)?
☛ How do you incorporate theory into your research?
☛ What are your favorite social science theories?
☛ How do you approach qualitative data analysis?
☛ What tools do you typically use for analysis? (e.g., affinity mapping, coding, Excel, etc.)
☛ How do you analyze ethnographic data?
☛ Have you used any qualitative data analysis software?
☛ At what point in the design process should user experience come into play?
☛ Talk about a time when you had to change your plan or approach.
☛ Our company hires heavily from our own user base. How would you balance the perspectives of internal users versus external users?
☛ What is your experience working in Agile environments?
☛ Have you ever used a Lean approach in your research?
☛ How do you visualize data?
☛ How do you visualize results for designers and developers?
☛ Give me an example of a project you worked on for which you had to translate research data into insights.
☛ Do you have experience with videography or video deliverables?
☛ How would you sell the value of User Experience research to a VP of Product versus a VP of engineering?
☛ Talk to us about your studies. Have you studied design?
☛ What's your current occupation/What are you currently working on?
☛ Take us through a couple of your favorite pieces in your portfolio. What was your design process for these pieces? What problems were you trying to solve? How did you make a certain design decision?
☛ Tell us about a project that didn't go as planned and the reasons that led to it.
☛ Do you have a side project you'd like to talk to us about?
How do you create effective wireframes?
- Do they talk about consistency, simplicity, elegance, delightfulness, efficiency, proficiency, productivity and other principals?
- Do they talk about the audience?
- Do they talk about appropriate level of detail – visual, widgets, controls, instructions, interactions, etc?
- Do they talk about whether it should be a story versus site map or catalog?
- Do they talk about neatness, attention to detail and presentation?
- Do they talk about how to prepare and deliver them?
What elements make for a good design concept to include in a project?
- Do they understand what design concept is?
- Do they talk about reusability, consistency, flexibility, or accessibility?
- Do they talk about information architecture, patterns?
How would you approach simplifying the display of complex information?
- Do they talk about tradeoffs between information displayed and interactions to reach a conclusion?
- Do they talk breaking up the display of information into understandable pieces?
- Do they have a strategy for helping the user navigate the information space?
- Do the talk about reusability, consistency, flexibility, accessibility?
What are the elements of a usable and useful user experience?
- Do they talk about a distinction between different designer roles?
- Do they focus on experiences versus interactions and elements?
- Do they mention related design directions like persuasive design, service design, or responsive design?
- Do they talk about physical objects, environments, or sounds versus mentioning clicks and buttons?
How do you use design principles?
- Do they talk about a distinction between different designer roles?
What considerations do make for designing for the enterprise vs consumer environments?
- Do they talk about the difference between As Designed and As Deployed?
- Do they talk about the difference between customer (buyers, managers) and users (role using software)?
- Do they about frameworks, platforms, consistency or other needs?
- Do they talk about learnability vs efficiency or other trade-offs where business objectives are more important than desirability?
How do you work in an Agile environment?
- Do they talk about the need for strategic design - through means such as Sprint 0?
- Do they talk about making sure that user stories are user and not functionally focused?
- Do they talk about the time needed to coordinate for for meaningful usability?
Your interviewer wants to get a good sense of how you work and engage with others. As a UX designer, it's crucial you know how to effectively communicate design decisions with the team from the beginning of the project right through to implementation.
Remember, each team member will come at a project from a different angle and different experience level. You'll be dealing with multiple interpretations of instructions, varied problem-solving approaches and understandings of the goals of the project. You should be able to communicate with each of them and quickly spot any gaps in knowledge or misunderstandings.
When responding to this question, ask your interviewer to describe the current team structure and any issues they are facing. After listening closely, explain how you can help. As you establish rapport with your interviewer, you will likely begin to stand out from the other applicants.
Working at a fast-paced startup, you'll inevitably be thrown assignments or tasks that you won't initially know how to approach (If this doesn't happen, you might not be really working at a startup). Think about a time you took on a difficult task head first and struggled through ambiguity to eventually arrive at some conclusion. It doesn't have to necessarily be a triumphant story as long as you show your willingness to explore, test, (fail), and iterate and demonstrate a commitment to learn and adapt going forward.
One example that comes to mind is the first time I conducted (guerrilla) user interviews. I found myself clueless with a script in my hand, an iPhone camera, and 7 strangers to find and interview on the street. I failed pretty hard at first - approaching people on the go, waiting too long to make an introduction (awkward…) and rushing my questions. I studied my footage, observed patterns of when people could most likely be approached (lunch in the park), and upped my confidence with the support of a friend designer and tried again. This time, a little bit better.
viewDidLoad is called when the view is loaded, whether from a Xib file, storyboard or programmatically created in loadView. viewDidAppear is called every time the view is presented on the device. Which to use depends on the use case for your data. If the data is fairly static and not likely to change then it can be loaded in viewDidLoad and cached. However if the data changes regularly then using viewDidAppear to load it is better. In both situations, the data should be loaded asynchronously on a background thread to avoid blocking the UI.
Tabs are one of the most frequently used components of mobile UIs, and for good reason.
They allow users to quickly move between a small number of equally important panes and bring a real-world element to the web and mobile applications. When implemented correctly, tabs can be an excellent user interface control element that can greatly improve usability.
They are considered to be very intuitive and easy to use. Well-designed tabs clearly indicate the user's current location using a different visual appearance that sets active tabs apart from the others.
If you need a practical example, look no further than your desktop browser.
As technology advances, designers have to deal with fewer and fewer restrictions, and can employ a variety of new solutions to enhance user experience. The new iOS 3D Touch gesture poses some physical challenges for users. Designers should take advantage of it to enhance user experience by making pages previewable and supporting quick access to frequently used features.
There are two main actions supported for now: Peek and Pop.
Peek and Pop allow apps to let users preview content and perform related actions within the app, before deciding if they want to view the full content. For instance, peeking can be used to provide live, content-rich previews. Ideally, peeking gives enough information about an item to augment the current task or helps you decide whether or not to fully engage the item. For example, preview a link in an email before deciding to open it in Safari or share it with friends. Peeking is often used in tables to view detailed row information before the row is selected.
3D Touch is an emerging technology, and is not supported by pre-2015 Apple devices. However, as older devices are phased out, it will be available on most, if not all, Apple platforms. In addition, Force Touch technology is coming to Android devices as well, and other platforms are bound to follow.
An employer asks this question to try and test how well you know yourself as a UX candidate in a professional capacity. Again, it's best to be honest – but when preparing your answer, try and keep the job advert and the key skills named in it in mind. Why? Because if some of your key strengths and skills match those named in the advert, you'd be silly not to mention them! When considering your key skills, in addition to thinking about your technical skills, it's also important to think about some of the softer skills you might have which are important in a UX role, such as patience and attention to detail.
Since this is your first interview, you may need to use an example of how you dealt with conflict that draws from experience that is not UX design-related. That doesn't matter. Describe how you were able to settle the conflict and what the outcome was. Diplomacy and the ability to communicate with people of all levels are both crucial skills to success in this field so the interviewer wants to understand how you would deal with client misunderstandings. Demonstrate your listening skills throughout the interview by paying careful attention to the interviewer and thinking a moment or two before answering questions.
This is also a great time to show how you could use user research to validate your design decisions and exactly why this is so important.
Keep yourself up to date with the upcoming trends in the user interface field before answering. Because it helps the employer to know how truly dedicated, passionate and knowledgeable you are in the field and how proactive you will be in your approach to stay ahead of the competitors. Therefore, learn about all the interesting buzz and hot trends in the market.
Best is to read about micro-interaction, layered interface and agnostic information flow, from what it is, how it works, what is its significance and what are their future implications. Let the employer know the level of commitment and interest you have in a user interface and how your approach as a designer is different from others.
Use this as a chance to tell a story - and follow a typical story arc: background, opportunity, process, adversity along the way, triumphs, and outcome. Talk about what you did on the project but focus most on why this particular project was so interesting for you. Did it have to do with the people, circumstance, opportunity, or something else?
As a young designer, I like to talk about my first foray in design: Creating the user experience for a co-living space in Tokyo. This project was meaningful to me because it was my introduction to UX and trial by fire as a designer. I practiced UX principles in a physical space, was challenged with designing in a foreign context (Tokyo), and I was able to find success in ambiguity and uncertainty - when I started I really didn't know what I was doing. Designing in a physical space provided a laboratory for me to observe, test and iterate in real time and built a foundation for how I now approach design problems in a digital context.
AutoLayout is way of laying out UIViews using a set of constraints that specify the location and size based relative to other views or based on explicit values. AutoLayout makes it easier to design screens that resize and layout out their components better based on the size and orientation of a screen. _Constraint_s include:
setting the horizontal/vertical distance between 2 views
setting the height/width to be a ratio relative to a different view
a width/height/spacing can be an explicit static value
Sometimes constraints conflict with each other. For example imagine a UIView which has 2 height constraints: one says make the UIView 200px high, and the second says make the height twice the height of a button. If the iOS runtime can not satisfy both of these constraints then it has to pick only one. The other is then reported as being "broken" by iOS.
Both are used for sending values and messages to interested parties. A delegate is for one-to-one communication and is a pattern promoted by Apple. In delegation the class raising events will have a property for the delegate and will typically expect it to implement some protocol. The delegating class can then call the _delegate_s protocol methods.
Notification allows a class to broadcast events across the entire application to any interested parties. The broadcasting class doesn't need to know anything about the listeners for this event, therefore notification is very useful in helping to decouple components in an application.
Atomic and non-atomic refers to whether the setters/getters for a property will atomically read and write values to the property. When the atomic keyword is used on a property, any access to it will be “synchronized”. Therefore a call to the getter will be guaranteed to return a valid value, however this does come with a small performance penalty. Hence in some situations nonatomic is used to provide faster access to a property, but there is a chance of a race condition causing the property to be nil under rare circumstances (when a value is being set from another thread and the old value was released from memory but the new value hasn't yet been fully assigned to the location in memory for the property).
Based on user-research, annoying notifications are the primary reason why people uninstall mobile apps (71% of respondents in one recent survey).
But still, push notification are a feature which keeps an app alive. In other words, notifications are powerful tools for businesses to communicate directly with users and deliver the right message at the right time and place in order to promote engagement. So it's really important to consider how these elements are designed.
It's important that the messages are clear and understandable. No matter what the content of the notification is, make sure it speaks the same language as your users, literally and figuratively. Users, regardless of frequency, appreciate content that is directly related to their personal interests.
Timing is the second most important thing when we consider making push notification. Also, solution could be sending a notification out at a reasonable time that would be most effective to your users, unless it's critical to inform them of something happening right now. In general, mobile usage peaks between 6pm - 10pm.
The employer is asking this question because they want to get some insight into who you are as a designer and they're trying to assess whether your outlook and views would fit in with the existing team. Now, obviously there's no ‘right' or ‘wrong' answer with this one because it all comes down to personal opinion, however when answering this type of question, it's a good idea to try and be very clear about which stage of the process you're referring to and to have clear reasons to justify your decision.
If you're really serious about getting this particular job, it's worth doing a bit of research into the company and seeing what they value in the design process eg. customer research, wire-framing, user flow diagrams etc – and then creating an answer which falls in line with their values.
Walk your interviewer through your project by using stories. Take him or her on a journey as you talk about steps that you took from the conception to completion of the project. Explain the problems you were trying solve, show how you solved them, and what the outcome was.
Use the documentation that was created while working on your project to help guide your story.
Here are examples of how to use your documentation:
☛ User Research: What methods did you use? Why did you use this method?
☛ User Personas & Scenarios: Who is the user and how they will be using the website or application?
☛ Customer Journeys, Task Analysis, and User Flows: What is the journey and interactions the user will take while using the website or app?
☛ Prototypes & Wireframes: Describe how you progressed from paper prototypes to hi-fidelity wireframes. What iterations were made based on user testing and why di you do it this way?
☛ Metrics: Explain through tracking analytics how sign ups, sales or other conversions may have increased as a result of your research and/or design decisions.
Hopefully these seven questions will help you prepare for your job interview and give you additional confidence as you get ready for this next step in your UX journey.
Use this as an opportunity to share your personal definition of UX Design. When you are explaining the UX design process, describe how you would approach a typical project, or explain how you've done it in the past when working on other projects. You'll probably want to touch on each of the following elements:
☛ User Research
☛ User Testing
☛ Information Architecture
☛ Interaction Design
☛ User Interface Design
Depending on the size of the company, and the nature of the role you're interviewing for, you might be responsible for overseeing all parts of the UX design process (that are then executed by other teams), you might be responsible for executing just one part, or you might be personally executing every part of this process (if it's a very small company, for example). Establish first what would be expected of you in this role, as this will help you answer the question more effectively in regard to how you would operate within this particular company.
There is always one area where a UI designer is comfortable and really good at it. The kind of client and the kind of media they work the best is like the mobile app or websites. Rather than mentioning only one area of expertise, it is good to discuss the past experience or projects where the work was new and was able to reach the desired results. These days employers are looking for versatile employees who can multi-task and has the capability to crack the difficult project. Hence, it is best to share your knowledge but best not to restrict yourself. Share what is close to your heart and what keeps you interested the most.
I like to talk about the company from a design perspective. Focus on mentorship, design culture, co-workers and the type of design challenges the company is currently facing. Make it personal and demonstrate a vision. Being able to talk about how the company melds with your past and how it will elevate you to where you want to be in your future shows a clear understanding of what you want and how to get it.
When I was applying for full-time jobs, I had just left a contract gig where I was the sole designer. I knew that I was looking for something different - a place where I could be mentored, level up in a thriving design culture, and solve problems at scale. I found companies that fit my focus and demonstrated how I was aligned with the team.
Don't fudge this question! Find some members of the design community now that you admire and start reading - there are a lot of incredible designers out there to source inspiration. If you don't have a list, check out LinkedIn, Medium, Twitter or design blogs to get started. If you're feeling brave, reach out to members in the community and begin to cultivate a relationship. It's remarkable how friendly people in the design circle can be.
Focus on crafting a unique and specific definition that sheds light on who you are as a designer. Use this also as an opportunity to tell a story that provides context for your design perspective. However you define UX, make this a chance to add something personal.
I focused my definition around empathy and the importance of understanding the people I'm designing for. It allowed me to touch on my background in psychology, allude to past experiences I had doing anthropological research, and brought to light the importance of designing human-centered experiences.
MVC stands for Model, View, Controller. It is a design pattern that defines how to separate out logic when implementing user interfaces. In iOS, Apple provides UIView as a base class for all _View_s, UIViewController is provided to support the Controller which can listen to events in a View and update the View when data changes. The Model represents data in an application and can be implemented using any NSObject, including data collections like NSArray and NSDictionary.
KVC stands for Key-Value Coding. It's a mechanism by which an object's properties can be accessed using string's at runtime rather than having to statically know the property names at development time. KVO stands for Key-Value Observing and allows a controller or class to observe changes to a property value.
Retaining an object means the retain count increases by one. This means the instance of the object will be kept in memory until it's retain count drops to zero. The property will store a reference to this instance and will share the same instance with anyone else who retained it too. Copy means the object will be cloned with duplicate values. It is not shared with any one else.
User onboarding is the process of increasing the likelihood that new users will successfully adopt your product.
When launching a product, you need to spend a lot of time and resources to attract a sufficient number of users. There are a variety of means to attract users to your app, including advertising, referral programs, public relations, and content marketing. But when people finally download the app, they sometimes feel abandoned or let down. Therefore, you must do a good job at showing users why they need your app and how they should use it.
Onboarding can sometimes be an integral part of the app, where we show the user how to behave within the app. This dive in effect is especially useful if we incorporated some new features that might be unfamiliar to our users. Tooltips can also be used to show them how things work.
The same approach can be used when we have complex systems. With tooltips we can explain why some things are there or why others are not. It's something like a guided tour of your app, where hints are only triggered when the user reaches an appropriate point in their experience. Thus, hints may appear in different orders for different users and actions.
Big players like Google and Apple are already using this approach to provide better UX while using their mobile platforms. Apple has Siri, while Google has Google Now. In order to enhance UX at some point, we can use voice for certain actions.
Cars can teach us a couple of basic things about designing with audio input for better user experiences. The first is that user experience design should not be limited to the usual graphic user interface (GUI).
For example, automotive apps could use voice to enhance user experience while the user is focusing on driving. Various car manufacturers have been integrating voice controls in their automotive infotainment systems for years.
Let's imagine you are building an app that will alert the driver when the vehicle is approaching a speed camera or a built-up area. All it will take for the driver to take notice and adjust their speed is a simple audio alarm. The car has no means to visually inform drivers that they are about to hit the curb, which is why audio warnings are used for lane departure solutions as well, and similar audio warning systems have been employed in aviation for decades.
Sound tends to be very useful when we go beyond the GUI, especially when it's necessary to alarm users and prompt them to act as soon as possible. This could be one of the examples how audio can enhance the user experience well beyond the screen.
Displaying faceted-search controls on mobile devices in a ‘tray' overlay is a new and effective way of displaying both results and filters on relatively small mobile screens.
Faceted search lets users refine a set of results by applying filters that comprehensively describe the search space. The ability to narrow down searches is invaluable for users who need to find something specific within a large content set. This type of search has become common for e-commerce/m-commerce and travel websites, as well as many different types of document and media collections.
A faceted system includes two critical elements:
Simple controls to construct sophisticated searches - providing familiar controls like drop-down menus and checkboxes with natural-language labels. This allows ordinary users to narrow down a large set of results to a smaller set that meets their exact criteria, without any knowledge of Boolean logic or query syntax.
Simultaneous display of the facet controls and the results - Showing both the filters and the results at the same time makes it easier for users to understand the relationship between the two; ideally, this is reinforced by dynamically updating the results set as soon as the user selects filter criteria.
Cards are fast becoming one of the best design patterns for mobile devices. They collect individual pieces of content aggregated together into one experience.
We are currently witnessing a re-architecture of the web, away from pages and destinations, towards completely personalized experiences built on an aggregation of many individual pieces of content. This is a result of the rise of mobile technology, which resulted in billions of new connected devices, using different resolutions, pixel densities, and form-factors.
The idea behind cards is to show the user only relevant information at the right time. This way user focuses solely on the most important message, while most clutter is removed.
The best time to use cards would be when we need to show a particular bit information, deemed important to the user at a given time. While the card approach could be used all the time, the way Twitter separates tweets one from another, this is not always practical.
There are many services and websites already using the card system to display information. This way they visually separate or highlight information.
This is an important question because the employer is really questioning your values as a designer. Again, with this one, there's no definitive correct answer, however this one is probably going to crop up at most UX interviews so it's worth trying to prepare an answer. Have a think about the whole research process and how it might be possible to streamline the process so that there's still time to complete at least some research on which to base designs on and improvements on.
With this question, the employer is also looking to see how much initiative you have as a designer and how you can help to streamline processes within their business – so be sure to keep this in mind when compiling your answer.