► Lithologic including composition, texture, sequence of rock types and the thickness of rock formations.
► Structural, including chief faults and folds that interrupt the uniformity of occurrence of rock types or sequence of rock types also beds, joints, fissures, cracks, etc
► Hydrologic characteristics of the aquifers permeability, porosity, transmissivity, storability, etc
1: Basic characteristics
► Geometric factors:
and stream density.
► Physical factors:
surface infiltration conditions,
soil types etc.
2: Channel characteristics:
carrying capacity and storage capacity
► Climate factors
► Rainfall: its intensity, duration and distribution
Run-off cycle is a part of the hydrologic cycle, will help us to understand the origin and the interdependence of these two categories of water resources.
When you are improving and enriching your soil, be sure not to mix a different type of soil with your existing soil. For example, you wouldn't want to mix a sandy soil with a clay soil this would produce disastrous results. Also, when adding organic material, make sure you don't use plant residue that consists of diseased plants or organic material that has meat scraps. Finally, sewage sludge can be used but it may contain high levels of lead and cadmium so it is best to use this material only on plants that you are not intending to ingest.
A soil's texture, refers to its particle content, the size of particles, and how cohesive they are. Sandy soils have very large particles, for example, whereas soils with a lot of clay have very small particles. Both soil with a lot of sand and soil with a lot of clay can be problematic. Sandy soil permits air, roots, and water to move too freely while soil with a lot of clay does not offer enough room for air, roots, or water.
The quality of a soil is usually determined by examining its fertility and texture. A soil's fertility is determined by a combination of essential nutrients and a pH that makes these nutrients available to the plants. The basic nutrients required by plants are nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium. Nitrogen is responsible for the healthy growth of the plant's leaf and stem, phosphorous is important for the root growth of the plant, and potassium is required for the overall health of the plant, keeping the plant growing and boosting its immune system. In addition to these three nutrients, plants also require trace elements such as calcium, magnesium, molybdenum, and zinc in order to be healthy. The pH of a soil tells us its acidity or alkalinity level and is measured on a scale between 1.0 and 14.0. A pH level of 7.0 is considered neutral. Soil with a pH higher than 7.0 is considered acidic and soil with a pH higher than 7.0 is considered to be alkaline.
Good soil is ninety percent of the secret to a successful garden. Without it, you will be fighting a losing battle no matter how diligent you are with watering, weed control, ensuring proper sunlight, and pest control.
Agricultural Engineering comprises of four main branches:
► Farm Implements and Power.
► Rural Structures
► Soil conservation, drainage and irrigation
► Rural Electricity
►University of Southern Queensland, Australia
►Tennessee Tech University, USA
►Iowa State University, USA
►University of Kentucky University of Arizona