Explain In VSD or Velopharyngeal Dysfunction (VPD) what are the assessment steps?

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► For the assessment, a nasometer is used to analyze acoustic energy emitted through the oral and nasal cavity during the production of speech
► Aerodynamic assessment, measuring oral pressure and airflow during speech, and the size of velopharyngeal gap
► Nasopharyngoscopy- to assess the function of the velopharyngeal mechanism
► Assess velopharyngeal closure during speech and phonation using videofluroscopy and lateral cephalographs
Submitted by: Muhammad

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