The main programs here are Arthur Samuel's, the rote learning method which is a lot like a memory based method, generalization learning which is a lot like backprop and a signature table approach that also gives you a feed-forward type network. One of Samuel's programs did beat a checkers champion and the AI community has often make a fuss over that saying that this AI program played a "championship-level" game however that expert beat the program in the next 6 games. Note too, what Samuels says: "the program is quite capable of beating any amateur player and can give better players a good contest".
This section looks at Berliner's program, two backprop versions by Tesauro and a temporal difference method by Tesauro. This latter program is VERY good and has found strategies that now human backgammon players acknowledge are better than some of the old humanly devised strategies.
This covers a number of game playing techniques, notably checkers and backgammon because so much good research has been done on these problems and because so many different techniques have been tried.
It involves identifying and analyzing the structure of words. Lexicon of a language means the collection of words and phrases in a language. Lexical analysis is dividing the whole chunk of txt into paragraphs, sentences, and words.
During this, what was said is re-interpreted on what it actually meant. It involves deriving those aspects of language which require real world knowledge.
The meaning of any sentence depends upon the meaning of the sentence just before it. In addition, it also brings about the meaning of immediately succeeding sentence.
It involves analysis of words in the sentence for grammar and arranging words in a manner that shows the relationship among the words. The sentence such as "The school goes to boy" is rejected by English syntactic analyzer.
It draws the exact meaning or the dictionary meaning from the text. The text is checked for meaningfulness. It is done by mapping syntactic structures and objects in the task domain. The semantic analyzer disregards sentence such as "hot ice-cream".
It includes the general knowledge about the world.