1. What is Aphasia?

It is described as an individual's inability to understand or use of words due to brain injury or stroke

2. What is Phonological disorder?

Phonological disorder is usually seen in children altering the structure of words or change in the sound pattern like "do" for "go" and "tup" for "cup".

3. What is Articulation disorder?

It is a disorder caused due to difficulties producing or pronouncing sounds, and the sounds may be added, substituted, omitted, added or deleted by other words. For example, school becomes cool, and spoon becomes thpoon

4. Explain what is dynamic time warping?

Dynamic time warping is an algorithm used for measuring similarity between two sequences that may vary in time or recognition. Dynamic time warping is used to compare different speech pattern in automatic speech recognition.

5. From your perspective, what is the biggest problem in healthcare today?

The lack of insurance coverage and reimbursement for speech and language related developmental delays and disorders such as stuttering.

6. What are your research interests?

According to my experience I should say that after any assessment of my patient I will research for new approaches and methods in assessment and treatment, like stuttering, aphasia.

7. What speech therapy method do you practice the most?

Playing , speaking with children much, articulation massage.

8. Why did you decide to become a Speech and Language pathologist?

Because I wanted to make a difference in the lives of the children and adults with whom I have worked.

9. What are your thoughts about inclusion and pull outs as therapy models?

I think it is the least restrictive method and I think it works best unless there are extreme limitations.

10. What are your experiences working with articulation?

I have a great deal of experience working with children who present with articulation errors. I have worked with children as young as 4, as well as children who are 18.

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11. What do you like most about being a speech-language pathologist?

The sense of satisfaction I feel when I successfully treat and discharge a client is indescribable. Knowing that I have made a difference in someone's life is very rewarding.

12. What do you like the most about being a speech pathologist?

I get paid to play with kids all day! I get to be creative and fun and silly, and yet there is science behind what I do, and the research backs it up. Most importantly, I make a difference in the lives of children and their families and that is incredibly rewarding.

13. Do you have any final piece of advice for students interested in pursuing SLP as a career?

Always be ethical and honest with your clients and refer to another professional when necessary. Our field is small, so it is important to maintain a good reputation. Don't burn bridges and treat others fairly.

14. Where do you see speech-language pathology in 10 years?

The use of apps (for smart phones and tablets) and other technology will become more common in treatment sessions. I also believe telepractice will gain popularity, because more people are becoming tech savvy.

15. Are you satisfied with your income?

Earnings fluctuate depending on cancellations and time of the year.

16. Describe any clinical experience you have had in undergrad?

In undergrad, we were given the opportunity to work with a client in the aushc. This allowed me to add clinic experience to my classroom knowledge and really enhance my initial experience with speech therapy.

17. What experience do you have working with language disorders?

I have worked with children with delayed language to help develop vocab and age appropriate length of sentences, and with children with autism and other special needs.

18. Would your friends or family, say you have a good patience?

Yes, I have a lot of patience which I developed through years of working with young children.

19. In your position now, knowing what you do - what would you say to yourself 10 years ago?

Ask other seasoned professionals for guidance when you have questions, and take advantage of the vast information available through ASHA.

20. Tell me how much money do you make as a speech pathologist?

Probably around 60 to 70 thousand in a year.

21. List out some of the equipment's used by speech pathologist?

Equipment used by speech pathologist are

► Sound pressure meter
► Suction machine to treat a patient with swallowing problem
► Flexible endoscope
► Passy Muir valves
► X-rays

22. Tell me In your opinion, what are the qualities needed to be a good speech therapist?

People skills, empathy, an analytical mind, a good ear for language, little-to-no squeamishness about peering into people's mouths, and above all, a sense of humor!

23. Mention what are the skills or qualities must need to be a good speech therapist?

► People Skills
► Empathy
► Analytical mind
► Good listening skills
► Good logical reasoning
► Identifying Strength and weakness of the alternative solution
► Training and using instructional methods

24. Do you have any family, and if so, do you have enough time to spend with them?

Yes, I try to make that a priority, which is why time management is so important.

25. Are you okay working the same career for 30 years?

Yes, being a speech pathologist for 30 years is something I plan to do. Unlike doing the same mundane duties as in another career, I believe that I will be working with a variety of different clients, helping them better their lives.

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26. What kind of help do you need to do your best work?

I like to use a transdisciplinary approach to help my students to reach their full potential. To do this, I would need good communication with the family, teacher, ot, pt and other professionals working with the student.

27. What excites you the most about speech therapy?

Seeing people improve their ability to speak and comprehend. Seeing advancements within someone is extremely exciting, knowing that they made changes based on their own efforts.

28. Have you helped a patient/student before? How rewarding was that for you?

Yes, it was very rewarding to see them improve their relationships with others through improved communication skills.

29. How do you make money/or how are you compensated?

I get paid on an hourly rate. I contract for various nursing homes but the nursing home doesn't actually pay me. They pay my rehab company who pays me.

30. Mention what are the approaches does the speech pathologist use for speech recognition?

For speech recognition mainly there are three approaches they use

► Acoustic Phonetic Approach
► Pattern Recognition Approach
► Artificial Intelligence Approach

31. What do you like least about being a speech-language pathologist?

As a speech language pathologist, you need to constantly engage the client and try to relate to him or her. To be most effective during therapy sessions, high energy and stamina are required. If you are tired or not feeling well, then it will negatively impact your day. Paperwork can also be daunting, because report writing and documentation of progress is necessary.

32. Describe the special education referral process?

A member of the school team, which may be a teacher, parent, guardian, etc. Note that this child may be falling behind or struggling to keep up which leads to a referral to the IEP team.

33. What surprised you the most about your speech-language pathology studies?

The intensity of the program. It's a combination of science and language arts. Having strong written and oral communication skills, as well as solid analytical reasoning ability are essential to success. If you are not interested in neurology, human development, or grammar, then it will be challenging to finish a program. In addition to needing a degree of natural aptitude, dedication, time, and research are required. Spending time in the library or clinic is a must if you want to graduate.

34. Mention what are the area special language pathologist can work?

Special pathologist can work with

► With Universities and schools
► With Community
► With Students
► With families
► With schools professional

35. What is the articulation disorder?

Articulation disorder is referred to the inability of an individual to pronounce certain words, due to the deformations of oral parts like palate, tongue, teeth, lips, facial nerves and muscles and sometimes respiratory system as well. Articulation disorder can be corrected with speech therapy or in certain cases can be minimized by operating surgeries.

36. Please explain Is speech-language pathology an art or a science?

I would say it is both an art and a science. My undergrad degree was a Bachelor of Arts, and much of the background learning I needed was in arts classes like linguistics and psychology. I did need classes such as statistics and a small amount of math as well, though. The master's degree I received from UBC is a Master of Science, and the Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences is part of Rehabilitation Sciences in the Faculty of Medicine at UBC. In my every day job, I use my arts background in linguistics and psychology, as well as a highly analytical, clinical and scientific approach.

37. What is the documentation process is followed by speech pathologist while treating a speech impaired patient?

► Speech language pathologist maintains the record of patient
► Record of assessment is reported to the patient, family, caregivers or any concerned person of the patient.
► Reports are circulated to the referral source and other professionals with written consent
► Documentation of type and severity of the communication, related disorder, associated conditions except screening information
► Maintaining privacy and security of documentation in compliance with the regulations of federal law
► It also includes summaries of previous services in accordance with all relevant legal and agency guidelines

38. What types of outreach/volunteer work do you do, if any?

I share my knowledge with other professionals and parents by writing a blog and contributing articles and posts to professional communities. I also mentor individuals who have just graduated and or are pursing this field and invite them to observe my sessions, provided I have my client's consent.

39. What are your experiences working with cognitive disabilities?

I worked three years in LTF that include geriatric patients with cognitive linguistic deficits. Patients with dementia and language deficits composed a large percentage of our caseload. Also patients post MVA / TBI usually exhibit deficits in memory, executive functions and attention.

40. How would you describe what you do?

I primarily work with the geriatric population helping people
had strokes, swallowing difficulties, or who have cognition impairments.
I enjoy just talking with the patients. I love the elderly…I love hearing and laughing at their stories, that's the best part.

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41. Explain In VSD or Velopharyngeal Dysfunction (VPD) what are the assessment steps?

► For the assessment, a nasometer is used to analyze acoustic energy emitted through the oral and nasal cavity during the production of speech
► Aerodynamic assessment, measuring oral pressure and airflow during speech, and the size of velopharyngeal gap
► Nasopharyngoscopy- to assess the function of the velopharyngeal mechanism
► Assess velopharyngeal closure during speech and phonation using videofluroscopy and lateral cephalographs

42. Explain what is phonemic disorder? Is it curable?

Phonemic disorders are speech disorder that the individual has trouble physically producing certain sounds. Usually, person with phonemic disorders have trouble distinguishing sounds made by certain letters like all "c" or "t" s. With speech therapy, phonemic disorder can be improved, but to what percentage it depends upon individual case.

43. Tell us how do you spend your free time? Any hobbies?

Reading speech and language journals and trade magazines! Sometimes it's hard for me to separate myself from my profession because it's such a strong part of my identity. However, when I do, I enjoy walking and hiking with my husband and dog, reading novels, traveling and sitting on the beach.

44. When did you first decide to become a speech-language pathologist? Why?

After graduating from Rutgers University in 2002, I worked two years for a finance firm. While this was a good experience, it wasn't my passion. I knew I wanted to work in a service-oriented industry where I could use my people skills and compassion to help others. My mother, who had worked as a learning disability consultant for close to 40 years, and my brother, an assistant vice principle, introduced the idea of exploring the field of speech language pathology. After doing some research and finding the profession interesting, I enrolled in pre-requisite night classes at Seton Hall University. This is when I fell in love with the profession. I was attracted to the science and research aspect, as well as the potential to make a real difference in people's lives.

45. Do you prefer working with children or adults?

They are both so different, and I guess that is the best ting about being able to work with both. With children, it's amazing to know that the changes you can instill now can affect them in a positive way for the rest of their lives. With adults, it's really interesting to learn about the lives they have already lead and to use those experiences to learn the skills they need.

46. Talk to me about the controversies surrounding non-speech oral exercises?

Currently there is a lack of evidence base surrounding the use of oromotor excercises to aid speech production, though there is evidence to support their use in chewing therapy and anecdotally some slts feel oromotor activities have resulted in improvements in speech intelligibility

47. What is most rewarding as Speech Pathologist?

The most rewarding part I think would be working with stroke patients and seeing a lot of them recover. Those who weren't able to swallow at all or were on feeding tubes or those who couldn't speak at all because of the stroke, it's really rewarding when they are able to get some of those capabilities back.

48. What drew you to the field as Speech Pathologist?

When I was in my first year of my undergrad program and casting around for arts classes to add to my timetable, my mom suggested I take a linguistics class, since both she and my sister had loved the classes they had taken in the subject, and I had enjoyed language studies in high school. Only a couple weeks into my Ling 101 course, I was hooked. I went on to take several more linguistics classes. When I was in my third year of a four-year arts degree, I realized that a pure linguistics degree would land me one of two types of jobs: research or teaching. Since I was interested in neither, and wanted a way to apply all this cool stuff I was learning

49. What is the difference between articulation and phonological disorder?

Articulation disorder: It is a disorder caused due to difficulties producing or pronouncing sounds, and the sounds may be added, substituted, omitted, added or deleted by other words. For example, school becomes cool, and spoon becomes thpoon
Phonological disorder: Phonological disorder is usually seen in children altering the structure of words or change in the sound pattern like "do" for "go" and "tup" for "cup".

50. What is augmentative and alternative communication?

For communication among speech unable person, augmentative and alternative device is used. It decipher the signals made by hand, eyes, picture, body language, etc. Augmentative and alternative communication includes both aided and unaided system. Aided system includes books and special computers, picture charts, etc. Unaided system includes gestures and signing. AAC methods may be personalized to meet each individual's needs.

51. What was it like finding a job in your chosen career field?

I have never had difficulty finding a job, and in many cases had to consider multiple offers at once. However, recent graduates may have difficulty finding an ideal match because supervision to earn their certification through ASHA (CCC-SLP) is needed. My final decisions were never determined by the amount of compensation. My motivation in accepting a job was based on the level of training I would receive and the experience I would gain from working in a certain setting with various disorders and populations.

52. Theoretical Based Speech Pathologist Interview Questions:

► What's your philosophy for serving preschool students for speech/language?
► What model do you use to serve students currently? (pull out, push in, inclusion, collaborative, coteaching, consultation?)
► What model do you use to serve students with autism?
► What program/model do you use to serve students with articulation/phonology disorders?
► How would you approach serving children with multiple special needs in a self-contained classroom setting?

53. Organizational Skills Based Speech Pathologist Interview Questions:

► How do you keep up with due dates and important to-do items?
► How do you organize therapy data and session notes?
► How do you stay organized?
► How do you keep data during a therapy session with a busy client?

54. Experience Based Speech Pathologist Interview Questions:

► Tell me a little bit about yourself.
► Tell me about your current work setting.
► What social skills resources do you use for children with autism spectrum disorders?
► Tell me about the most difficult client you've ever had and how you worked through it.
► Tell me about the hardest therapy session you've ever had and how you made it work.
► What experience do you have with children with __(whatever disorder the site specializes in serving)__________?
► What AAC/Assistive Technology experience do you have?
► How do you involve parents and teachers in treatment?
► Tell me what you do in your current job.

55. Speech Pathologist Hospital/Private Clinic Based Interview Questions:

For a position at a hospital or a private clinic, your interviewer will be interested in determining if your skills, interests and experiences will be a good fit for their patient population. They will also likely ask questions about how you would integrate your work with other therapists who may be treating the patients.

► What kind of experience do you have with voice disorders?
► What oral-motor programs are you familiar with?
► What experience do you have in working with people of other disciplines (OT, PT, etc.)?
► How proficient are you at MBSs?
► Tell me how you would assess a right CVA.
► What types of patients are you most interested in working with, in terms of age and type of disability?

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56. Knowledge Based Speech Pathologist Interview Questions:

► What continuing education courses have you taken in the past 2 years?
► Are you certified in any therapy program such as Hanen, Floortime, ABA, Lindamood Bell, etc?
► Do you regularly attend ASHA, and which courses do you typically go to?
► Tell me what you think the current events/issues are in speech-language pathology.
► How do you usually come up with goals/objectives for clients?
► Describe the steps you'd take to conduct an evaluation (both quantitative and qualitative).
► What do you see as your role in the Response to Intervention (RTI) process in a school system?
► How would you keep your caseload manageable?
► What do you see as your role in regard to reading/writing skills for elementary school students?
► What strategies do you use regularly for children with _______ (autism, social skills deficits, Down Syndrome, apraxia, feeding disorders, etc.)?

57. Speech Pathologist School Interview Questions:

When interviewing for a position in a school, your interviewer will be looking for information about how you work with a variety of different people. They will ask questions relating to your interaction with parents and teachers, as well as with students.

► What clinical experience have you had in a school setting?
► What kind of strategies would you use with a child who stutters, and why?
► Imagine a parent comes to you and tells you that she is taking her child out of speech because the child doesn't like it. How will you respond?
► You are in a group setting with a child who stutters, a child with a receptive delay, and a child with artic only problems. How will you develop a therapy plan that will meet each child's goals?
► How would you deal with a situation in which you suspected a case of child abuse?
► Explain how you would assess a child who is a non-native English speaker.

58. Personal Qualities Based Speech Pathologist Interview Questions:

► What are your strengths?
► What are your weaknesses, and how do you overcome them?
► What prompted you to want a career in speech language pathology?

59. Speech therapy can cost your patient a lot of money, do you worry about the cost for the patient when doing your job?

Yes I do. I know that many insurance companies do not cover speech therapy or only cover a minimal amount of visits. I try to be aware of the coverage and do the best I can to provide services that benefit the patient in a cost effective manner as quickly as possible.

60. What exercise do you encourage the most for NS-OME?

Tongue exercises if it is with articulation like the sound /r/. Have the train the tongue to move in different directions.

61. Can you have a patient that has an aphasia and apraxia, and if so, which one would you address first? And how?

Yes, you can have a patient that has both communication disorders. I would work first on the skills that would improve the functional communication of this patient.

62. What are your experiences using oral motor approach to improve speech clarity?

Mixed success using this method. I find it can be really useful for patients in increasing overall awareness of their oral structures and articulatory positions during speech in those who are dyspraxic or dysarthric. This can increase speech intelligibility. I have found that functional speech tasks have proven more successful in speech intelligibility gains, also patients often prefer functional 'relevant' exercises.

63. Tell me why are you the best candidate for us?

I bring the diversity to the field also I am able to help students that speaks Spanish and also I am aware of different cultures.

64. Do you like to work in teams or are you an individual achiever?

Both, I am self motivated and have alot of initiative, but I like to collaborate with other slaps and slps.

65. How/why did you choose the school you went to?

I selected Montclair State University for several reasons. First, it is a well-established program with a great reputation and accredited by the ASHA. The program's professors are also well-published and recognized in the field. Second, they have an on-site clinic, which provides clinical training in various disorders and populations. Lastly, I wanted to practice in the area once I graduated, so attending Montclair State enabled me to make connections and contacts while attending the program.

66. On average: How many hours a week do you work? How many hours do you sleep per night? How many weeks of vacation do you take?

I work 40 to 50 hours a week. As a self-employed professional, my work week includes: 20 to 25 hours of treatment and evaluation time; 10 to 15 hours of paperwork, blog writing, research, and preparation for sessions; six to eight hours of commute, since I perform home-based therapy; and two to three hours of communicating with clients, insurance companies, and other professionals outside of treatment time.

I sleep seven hours a night. Typically, I take four weeks of vacation a year.

67. What are the tools used by speech pathologist to treat a patient?

To treat a patient they use

► Adaptive communication switches like infrared switches, sound switches, touch switches, etc.
► Sound measuring apparatus like an ECG or laryngograph
► Stroboscopes
► Computer and tablet and the whole lot of app to treat speech impaired patient
► Therapeutic voice synthesizers and augmentative communication devices
► Various software likes speech analysis software, language analysis software and signal analysis software
► Medical devices like multi-speech device KayPENTAX, video voice, text to speech, etc.

68. Explain what causes speech disorder?

The causes for speech disorder can vary, it may be

► Development disorders (e.g.; Autism)
► Genetic syndromes ( Down syndrome)
► Illness
► Neurological disorders (Cerebral palsy)
► Hearing loss

69. What is the difference between Apraxia and Aphasia?

Aphasia: It is described as an individual's inability to understand or use of words due to brain injury or stroke
Apraxia: It is described as an individual's inability to initiate the movement needed to make a speech. This difficulty may persist despite the fact that there is no weakness in muscles.

70. What is speech-language pathology?

The field of speech-language pathology involves the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of communication disorders. Speech-language pathologists work with adults and children with difficulties in the following main areas: language comprehension, expressive language, social language and pragmatics, the production of speech sounds, phonation (voice), fluency, oral motor control and swallowing disorders.

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71. What is a common misconception people have about what you do?

People assume that Speech Pathologist only work with people who either stutter or have articulate problems and those are just sprinkles on the cake compared to what we really do.

72. Tell me What education or skills are needed to be a speech pathologist?

Generally you need about 4 years of undergrad plus two years of a grad school to get your Masters I don't know about skills, you pretty much develop them all in college if there is such a skill.

73. What is Apraxia?

It is described as an individual's inability to initiate the movement needed to make a speech. This difficulty may persist despite the fact that there is no weakness in muscles.

74. What is orofacial Apraxia?

Orofacial Apraxia is a neurological condition that affects motor movement and functioning of facial muscles.

75. Has being a speech-language pathologist met your expectations? Why?

It has exceeded my expectations because it is always interesting and far from boring. The field evolves through research, so there are constantly new techniques and approaches to learn. Additionally, the treatment sessions must be personalized to ensure success, because each individual is unique and has his or her own interests as well as strengths and weaknesses.

76. Describe how you currently work or communicate with caregivers?

I allow my supervising SLP to do most of the formal communication other than general info and info such as what we did in the session.

77. Describe to me your best therapy session?

While doing an internship I was treating a man with aphasia, he had a girlfriend and wanted to be able to send her appropriate text messages because he had word finding difficulties, we began practicing with messages and appropriate phrases and after a few sessions he and I shared a conversations through text.

78. What advice would you offer someone considering this career?

I would tell them to specialize at the beginning you know, to choose either adults or children. I know it is kind of hard to do that but if they could specialize I think it would make it easier for them in the long run. Just make sure that you are working with the right population, be it adults or children, and realize that there is going to be a little bit of monotony. There is probably more monotony with adults but either way try to be as creative as possible to make each day a little bit more livable.

79. Explain to me your graduate education?

I attended _____ university which has a rural focus, with an aim to retain country people in country jobs. It equips us to specifically deal with issues around indigenous health, and difficulties in providing health education, assessment and therapy to regional and remote areas. It also looked at alternative methods to achieve this, like training people within the community and telehealth, and different models of service provision.

80. What is the speech screening test includes in an adult?

In an adult screening test includes standardized and non-standardized methods like

► To screen oral motor function
► Speech production skills
► Comprehension and production of spoken and written language
► Cognitive aspects of communication

81. Explain what are the symptoms of orofacial Apraxia?

► Minimum babbling during infancy
► Difficult in saying long or complex words
► Repeated attempts at pronunciation of words
► Stresses on certain words
► Excessive use of nonverbal forms for communication
► Distorting of vowel sounds
► Omitting consonants at the beginning and end of words
► Difficulty stringing syllables together

82. Tell me what do you dislike?

The monotony. Everyday you kind of doing the same things, a lot of these patients have cognitive impairments, they don't have any short term memory so every day is like Groundhog Day pretty much.