A solid mass such as a mineral, determined by its atomic structure. A single crystal growing without interference has flat faces and such crystals are highly valued. Others crystals growing with interference, such as crystals of quartz found in granite, will not have perfect form/flat faces.
For instance, if you are thinking - I have a strong interest in physics/chemistry - can I combine such disciplines with geology and still be able to find employment as a geologist?
Geology is a broad field and allows for combining different disciplines - such as physics, chemistry, mathematics, and biology with geology. In fact one of the main reasons students are drawn to geology is because they can easily merge their interests in most scientific fields with geology - an approach that is well-suited for solving environmental problems as the study of the Earth also involves understanding its physics, chemistry and biology!
Mineral which may fill or comprise a crack in a rock, or masses of rock which occupy fissures in other rocks. Veins may have originated in many different ways and can present a great variety of forms and structures. They are often classified in three groups:
(i.) veins of igneous rock,
(ii.) of sedimentary, and
(iii.) of minerals deposited by water or by gases.
Engineering geologists apply geological data, techniques, and principles to the study of rock and soil surficial materials and groundwater; they investigate geologic factors that affect structures such as bridges, buildings, dams and airports.
Paleontologists study fossils to understand past life forms and their changes through time and to reconstruct past environments.
Sustainable development is the development of industry and natural resources in such a way as not to damage the ability of future generations to meet their basic needs for food, shelter, products, etc.
Environmental geologists study the interaction between the geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere and human activities. They work to solve problems associated with pollution, waste management, urbanization, and natural hazards, such as flooding and erosion.
A group of minerals and rocks, largely non-metallic, that are of economic value (e.g., gravel, sand, clay, potash, building stone).
Petrologists determine the origin and natural history of rocks by analyzing mineral composition and grain relationships.
Marine geologists investigate the ocean-floor and ocean-continent boundaries; they study ocean basins, continental shelves and coastal environments.
Manitoba minerals and petroleum represent the province's 2nd largest primary resource industry and the sector is a key contributor to Manitoba's ongoing economic growth. In 2012, the combined value of mineral production for metals ($1.325 billion), industrial minerals ($187.5 million) and petroleum ($1.62 billion) totalled about $3.13 billion. The industries employ an average of 5,700 workers directly, with many more in indirect jobs and generating millions of dollars in spin-off business.
A mining term referring to the product of a smelter (metal with some contained sulphur) which must be further refined to obtain the pure metal.
Mineralogists study mineral formation, composition, uses and physical and chemical means for identifying them.
A complex mixture of chemicals, containing both oil and gas, made up of the elements hydrogen and carbon (combined as chemical compounds called hydrocarbons).
‘Hard' rock geology focuses mainly on igneous and metamorphic rocks. Hard rock geologists work mostly with mineral deposits, mine development and bedrock mapping. Soft rock geology deals with sedimentary rocks where ‘sediment' was formed through long exposure to the elements or glaciers. Soft rock geologists quite often work in the petroleum industry.
A stage in the formation of sedimentary rock that occurs when sediments are pressed together by the weight of overlaying layers.
In mining, the treatment of ore by heat and air, or oxygen-enriched air, in order to remove sulphur and arsenic.
Seismologists study earthquakes and analyze the behavior of earthquake waves to interpret the structure of the Earth.
The study of Earth and all of its materials both above and below the Earth's surface.
Manitoba's 650 000 km2 is underlain entirely by rocks of Precambrian age and sedimentary rocks deposited during the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras.
Hydrogeologists study the occurrence, movement, abundance, distribution, and quality of subsurface waters and related geologic aspects of surface waters.
Rock that has been altered by heat, pressure, or hot molten rock (such as magma) from the Earth's interior.
Rock formed during the compression and cementation staged of loose sediments (e.g. sandstone) or by deposition from a solution (e.g. salt).
Substances, typically metals and metallic minerals, which allow heat and electricity to pass through them easily.
Economic geologists explore for and develop metallic and non-metallic resources; they study mineral deposits and find environmentally safe ways to dispose of waste materials from mining activities.
Planetary geologists study planets and their moons in order to understand the evolution of the solar system.
A scale used to measure the hardness of any mineral material, also referred to in geology
A stage in the formation of sedimentary rock in which the grains of rocks or minerals become fixed.
An unconsolidated or loose natural accumulation of rounded rock fragments which are coarser than sand.
A natural concentration of minerals which can be mined and can render profitability.
A sequence of events explaining how rock can change (e.g., from sedimentary rock to metamorphic rock).
A bright brass-yellow mineral often called ‘Fool's Gold' and made up of the elements iron and sulphur.
The various methods of preparing metals for use by separating them from their ores.
Oil that comes straight out of the ground as a liquid. Crude can come in a range of compositions and colours.
Portion of the mantle of the Earth that is non-rigid and able to flow.
Invaluable minerals associated with valuable minerals, contained within an ore deposit.
A scientist whose primary study is to examine the properties of minerals.
A resource that can be replaced within a human lifetime.
Barren rock in a mine, or minerals which are considered too low in grade to be of economic value.
Materials that are not derived from living organisms.
A term referring to the waters of the Earth.
A mineral form of the element ‘carbon'. Clear varieties are valued as gems.
Natural materials composed of very small mineral particles which can be molded when wet.
A caramel-like hard or solid form of petroleum.
A term used to describe any phenomena related to vibrations caused by earthquakes.
Potassium salts found in sedimentary rocks.
Molten rock formed in the interior of the Earth.
A mineral composed of iron oxide.
The basic building block of ‘matter'.
A machine used for crushing rock.
A semi-solid form of petroleum with a molasses-like texture.
A rectangular plate of copper (or other metal) cast in a shape suitable for electro-refining.
Structural geologists analyze rocks by studying deformation, fracturing, and folding of the Earth's crust.
A vertical or inclined excavation for the purpose of opening and servicing a mine.
A resource of Earth, which once extracted, cannot be replaced within a human's lifetime.
Magma forced through volcanic action to the Earth's surface.
The outermost layer or shell of the Earth which varies from 6 to 60 kilometres in depth/thickness.
Property of a mineral that allows it to split along crystal planes.
In construction, rock fragments that range from sand-sized grains to gravel-sized.
Oceanographers investigate the physical, chemical, biological, and geologic dynamics of oceans.
Very fine particles of rock fragments between sand and clay sizes, which are often carried by moving water and deposited as sediment.
A person who searches for mineral deposits.
The solid outermost shell of the Earth.
The breaking down and subsequent removal of either rock or earthy surface material by the forces of nature.
A hole drilled for the purpose of blasting rather than for exploration or geological information.
Geology is the primary science in the study of Earth Sciences. Geology involves exploring and investigating the Earth and its properties and resources in every dimension.
A compound of two or more metals, usually produced by fusion.
A product containing the valuable metal from which most of the waste material in ore has been eliminated.
A mining term for a horizontal passage underground that follows along the length of a vein or rock formation.
A description of the manner in which light reflects from a mineral surface.
Any raw material which may be used to meet human needs.
A surface pit site for the extraction of rock.
An excavation in a mine from which ore is being extracted, or has been extracted.
Geophysicists apply the principles of physics to study the earth's interior and investigate Earth's magnetic, electric, and gravitational fields.
Volcanologists investigate volcanoes and volcanic phenomena to understand these natural hazards and predict eruptions.
Sedimentologists study the nature, origin, distribution, and alteration of sediments such as sand, silt, and mud. Oil, gas, coal and many mineral deposits occur in such sediments.
Geochemists use physical and inorganic chemistry to investigate the distribution of major and trace elements in ground water and Earth materials, and use organic chemistry to study the composition of fossil fuel (coal, oil, and gas) deposits.
Material which is rejected from a mill after the recoverable valuable minerals have been extracted.
The vitreous mass separated from fused metals in the smelting process.
The reclaiming and reuse of materials and lands which were once part of a mining operation.
Naturally occurring chemical elements or compounds with a crystal-like structure.
The ability of a mineral to be attracted to a magnet.
The layer of the Earth's interior which separates the crust and core.
‘Extrusive' igneous rock is rock formed as a result of magma being forced out of the Earth's crust and hardening on the surface. ‘Intrusive' igneous rock is rock formed as a result of magma solidifying within the Earth's crust.
A layered or banded crystalline metamorphic rock whose grains are aligned or elongated into a roughly parallel arrangement.
A particular type of milling plant that produces a concentrate of valuable minerals or metals. After milling, the concentrate must be treated in another type of plant, such as a smelter, to effect recovery of pure metal.
A rectangular plate of metal produced by electrolytic refining which is melted into commercial shapes such as wirebars, billets, ingots, etc.
Manitoba mines produce a variety of mineral resources from base and precious metals such as nickel, copper, zinc and gold and specialty metals like cesium. In addition, Manitoba's industrial minerals include dolomite, spodumene, silver, gypsum, salt, granite, limestone, lime, sand and gravel.
Geologic time traces Earth's history in blocks of time such as eons, eras, periods, epochs. Geologic time is most often presented in a graph called a geologic time scale.