1. Define Search Engine?

A search engine is a program that searches for Web documents with keyword (s) you specify. Yahoo!, Google, and AltaVista are just three examples of search engines that have been created to help you find information on the Web.

2. The Internet was developed in?

Late 1960s.
As surprising as its age is, the Internet was born from the U.S. military's need to construct a decentralized computer network that could withstand a nuclear war. The network was used and refined by universities throughout the 1970s and 1980s, but it wasn't until 1992 that the Internet was made available to the general public.

3. Which of the following word processors came first?

WordStar.
Before the invention of word processing and spreadsheet software, personal computers had little value in the mainstream business world. WordStar was used before the days of function keys and the mouse. It, instead, used a set of Ctrl and Alt key combinations to navigate and edit text documents.

4. Who co-founded Hotmail in 1996 and then sold the company to Microsoft?

Sabeer Bhatia.
Smith came up with the idea for anonymous web-based email in 1995, and worked with Sabeer Bhatia, his colleague at Apple, to found the company. The company launched on July 4, 1996 with Smith as its Chief Technology Officer. In December 1997 Bhatia sold Hotmail to Microsoft for a reported $400 million.

5. What does PPTP stand for?

Point to Point Tunneling Protocol.
It is a protocol used to create VPN connections over the net.
The Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a method for implementing virtual private networks. PPTP uses a control channel over TCP and a GRE tunnel operating to encapsulate PPP packets.

6. What is the Websites code for the country Bulgaria?

BG.

7. What is TTL?

Time To Live.
Time To Live specifies how many more hops a packet can travel before being dropped.

8. The invention of the transistor, or semiconductor, was one of the most important developments leading to the personal computer revolution. What company invented the transistor in 1947?

Bell Laboratories.
The transistor, which essentially is a solid-state electronic switch, replaced the much less suitable vacuum tube. Because the transistor consumed significantly less power, a computer system built with transistors was much smaller, faster and more efficient than a computer system built with vacuum tubes.

9. Sometimes computers and cache registers in a foodmart are connected to a UPS system. What does UPS mean?

Uninterruptable Power Supply.
An uninterruptable power supply (UPS) is a backup power supply, such as a battery, that provides emergency power in the event that power is lost from the main supply.

10. In the UK, what type of installation requires a fireman's switch?

Neon Lighting.
Neon lighting runs at a high voltage, typically above 1000 Volts. A fireman's switch protects a fireman from receiving a shock when a water jet is sprayed onto the installation. The switches are red, and mounted in a conspicuous position. (This is specified by IEE Regulations (Europe), SANS (South Africa), UK Electricity regulations and many Asian countries. I am unable to confirm other countries' requirements, so feel free to let me know.)

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11. What is a NIC?

Network Interface Card.
A NIC is a Network Interface Card. Usually a card that is plugged into a computer's expansion slot.

12. The Central Processing Unit is an embedded chip that acts as the 'brains' of a computer. What Intel chip was used in the Altair (the first real personal computer)?

8080.
The Intel 8080 was a jazzed-up calculator chip. It was included in microcomputer kits which were little more than demonstration tools and did little except blink lights. Besides the 8080 chip, the Altair included a power supply, a front panel with a large number of lights and 256 bytes (not kilobytes) of memory. The kit sold for {$395} and had to be assembled.

13. Define URL?

The address of a document or "page" on the World Wide Web.
URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. It is an address for a specific document found on the Web.

14. What does SSL stand for?

Secure Socket Layer.
A protocol developed by Netscape to allow secure connections over the net.

15. What does ECP stand for?

Extended Capabilities Port.
An Extended Capabilities Port is about 10 times faster than the old standard one, but it is used the same way a regular parallel port is.

16. Which Intel chip was the first to support a 32-bit bus architecture?

386DX.
The 386 chip was the first to offer a possible 32- or 64-bit access to data. OS-2 2.x or higher and Windows 95 required at least a 386 CPU while Windows NT 4.x required at least a 486 CPU to run.

17. What is the Websites code for the country New Zealand?

NZ.

18. A program that neither replicates or copies itself, but does damage or compromises the security of the computer. Which 'Computer Virus' it is?

Trojan.
Typically it relies on someone emailing it to you, it does not email itself, it may arrive in the form of a joke program or software of some sort.

19. This virus activated every Friday the 13th, affects both .EXE and .COM files and deletes any programs run on that day. What is the name of that virus?

Jerusalem.
This was one of the most common viruses unleashed in 1988.

20. Which is documented hoax virus?

McDonalds screensaver.
A virus hoax is usually an email that gets mailed in chain letter fashion describing some devastating highly unlikely type of virus, you can usually spot a hoax because there's no file attachment, no reference to a third party who can validate the claim and the general 'tone' of the message.

21. What is FMD?

Fluorescent Multi-Layer Disc.
A new type of disc developed by Constellation 3D Inc. These discs can hold up to to 140 GB of data.

22. What does ICMP stand for?

Internet Control Message Protocol.
ICMP Packets are used to send control messages including errors.

23. What is RISC?

Reduced Instruction Set Computer.
Reduced Instruction Set Computer - a type of microprocessor that relies on simple instructions which can be used to build more complicated ones.

24. The first graphical browser for the WWW was named?

Mosaic.

25. What is a MAC?

Media Access Control.
MAC is short for Media Access Control address, an address unique to every piece of network hardware.

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26. What is the Websites code for the country United Kingdom?

UK.

27. What is the World Wide Web?

The part of the Internet that enables information-sharing via interconnected pages.

28. In 1983, which person was the first to offer a definition of the term 'computer virus'?

Cohen.
1983 Fred Cohen, while working on his dissertation, formally defines a computer virus as 'a computer program that can affect other computer programs by modifying them in such a way as to include a (possibly evolved)copy of itself.'

29. According to CNN, how much did Internet traffic increase between 1994 and 1996?

Twenty-five times.
The Internet is growing faster than you think!

30. What does DOCSIS stand for?

Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification.
DOCSIS was developed by CableLabs. A standard set for Cable equipment to ensure compatibility across all DOCSIS networks.

31. What is a GPU?

Graphics Processing Unit.
It is a chip dedicated to performing 3D calculations.

32. Which of the following is NOT a type of expansion slot or bus design used in Advanced-Technology class systems?

PROM.
PROM stands for Programmable Read Only Memory and is not a type of expansion slot or bus design. Today, PCI has become the most used expansion slot design in PCs. Older PCs incorporated both PCI and ISA slots for computability with older expanssion devices.

33. Which operating systems is produced by IBM?

OS-2.
IBM also created it's own version of DOS called PC-DOS.nn

34. Which company created the most used networking software in the 1980's?

Novell.
Novell (based in Provo, UT) created NetWare which is still one of the most used PC networking systems in the world.

35. Which computer virus that actively attacks an anti-virus program or programs in an effort to prevent detection?

Retrovirus.

36. On what date was the debut of the first IBM Personal Computer?

August 12, 1981.
Before IBM created its personal computer, two types of computer systems, Apple II and CP-M, dominated the microcomputer world. Neither of these systems were PC compatible, or Mac-compatible (the two primary standards in place today). The original IBM PC became a new standard in the microcomputer industry. Since then, hundreds of millions of PC-compatible systems have been sold, as the original PC grew into a large family of computers and peripherals. More software has been written for this computer family than for any other system on the market.

37. What is not always necessary for accessing the Web?

A modem.
You need a browser, online access and a computer to surf the Web, but if you're on a local area network (LAN) that's connected to the Internet, you don't need a modem to go online.

38. What is NAT?

Network Address Translation.
NAT is commonly used by nearly all comsumer routers today, both hardware and software.

39. What was the clock speed of the original IBM PC?

Less than 5 MHz.
The original IBM PC ran at a breathtaking 4.77 MHz (Smmmmmmokin!) Today there are new PC processors that run faster than 3 gigahertz.

40. What does the abbreviation "http" stand for?

Hypertext Transfer Protocol

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41. What is VCM?

Virtual Channel Memory.
VCM was designed by NEC Corp. It is supposed to be faster than normal SDRAM, and it is, but it never caught on.

42. What is LCP?

Link Control Protocol.
LCP is a part of PPP(Point-Point Protocol).

43. Which is the best search tool for finding Web sites that have been handpicked and recommended by someone else?

Subject directories.
Subject directories tend to house fewer-sometimes more relevant-sites than those found through search engines. Sites in a subject directory often have been handpicked by editorial teams or specialists in a particular field.

44. What is the Websites code for the country Colombia?

CO.

45. In what year did the Symantec Corporation first release Norton Antivirus?

1990.
1990 Symantec launches Norton AntiVirus, one of the first anti-virus programs developed by a large company.

46. The IBM PC-XT was the first to include a hard drive. What was the capacity of this disk?

10 MB.
The original IBM PC used 5.25-inch floppy disks to store its operating system and programs. IBM referred to the new hard disk as a Fixed Disk. Today, even a the operating system wont fit on a 10 MB disk.

47. The first web server was built in?

1990 in Geneva, Switzerland.

48. What is the Websites code for the country Spain?

ES.

49. What is the Websites code for the country Mongolia?

MN.

50. Which of the following is not a part of the Internet?

CD-ROM

51. Abbreviation URL stands for?

Uniform Resource Locator.

52. What is a spider?

A program that catalogs Web sites.
Spiders are also referred to as "bots" or "crawlers," and constantly scan the Internet for new and updated Web sites.

53. What is main circuit board in a computer?

Mother board.

54. ARPANET, the precursor to the Internet, was developed by?

Department of Defence.

55. List the terminals of an FET?

Drain, Gate, Source.

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56. What kind of data can you send by e-mail?

Audio, Video, Pictures.

57. In which decade was the telephone invented?

1870s.
Alexander Graham Bell's notebook entry of 10 March 1876 describes his successful experiment with the telephone. Speaking through the instrument to his assistant, Thomas A. Watson, in the next room, Bell utters these famous first words, "Mr. Watson -- come here -- I want to see you".

58. In which decade was the Internet first implemented?

1960s.
The first message ever sent over what is now called the Internet took place at 10:30PM on October 29, 1969. Back then, the Department of Defense called it ARPAnet (Advanced Research Projects Agency network).

59. When discussing technology, a hot spot is?

A place served by public wireless access.

60. What would you use for immediate, real-time communication with a friend?

Instant Messenging.

61. In which decade was the telegraph invented?

1840s.
On May 24, 1844, Samuel Morse send his famous message, "What hath God wrought?"

62. Another word for the CPU is?

Microprocessor.

63. In which decade were the first successful diode and triode vacuum tubes invented?

1900s.
In 1904, John Ambrose Fleming invented the first practical electron tube called the 'Fleming Valve', which is a diode rectifier. In 1906, Lee de Forest invented the audion later called the triode, which provided signal amplification.

64. The "http" you type at the beginning of any site's address stands for?

Hyper Text Transfer Protocol.
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web. Hypertext is structured text that uses logical links (hyperlinks) between nodes containing text.

65. Lately you hear a clatter from your computer, especially when you load a program or call up information. What's going on?

Your hard disk may be headed for failure

66. What is Internet Explorer?

Internet Explorer is a Web Browser.

67. ISP stands for?

Internet Service Provider.

68. HTML is used to?

Author webpages.

69. In IT ROM stands for?

Read Only Memory

70. The "home page" of a web site is?

The first page.

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71. "www" stands for?

World Wide Web.
The World Wide Web (www, W3) is an information system of interlinked hypertext documents that are accessed via the Internet. It has also commonly become known simply as the Web.

72. What is the another name for a computer chip?

Micro chip.

73. What are the three main search expressions, or operators, recognized by Boolean logic?

AND, OR, NOT.
The three most commonly used Boolean operators are: AND, OR, and NOT. On the Web, Boolean operators are used in advanced searches to combine search items. For example, an "AND" operator between two words ("football AND television") tells the search engine to find documents that contain both of these words.

74. AOL stands for?

America Online.

75. Which is not an internet protocol?

STP

76. What is a BJT?

Bi-polar Junction Transistor.

77. What is Google (www.google.com)?

Google is a Search Engine.

78. How many terminals does a BJT have?

3

79. Coating of dust on a computer's main circuit boards has this probable consequence?

Overheating.

80. What are the 2 terminals of a diode called?

Anode and Cathode

81. A DV camcorder is?

Used to create digital video

82. In which decade was the first solid state integrated circuit demonstrated?

1950s.
On September 12, 1958, Jack Kilby demonstrated the first working IC while working for Texas Instruments, although the U.S. patent office awarded the first patent for an integrated circuit to Robert Noyce of Fairchild.

83. How can you catch a computer virus?

Opening e-mail attachments.

84. The main computer that stores the files that can be sent to computers that are networked together is?

File server

85. which of the following sites can you set up your email account?

Www.gmail.com
Www.yahoo.com
Www.hotmail.com

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86. Hardware devices that are not part of the main computer system and are often added later to the system?

Peripheral

87. In IT RAM stands for?

Random Access Memory.

88. Name the terminals of a BJT?

Emitter, Base, Collector.

89. What do you call a computer on a network that requests files from another computer?

A client.

90. Experts say the healthiest way to view a computer monitor is by?

Placing it 18 to 30 inches away from your eyes.

91. What designates where the next action occurs?

Select

92. Which was an early mainframe computer?

ENIAC.
(Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) was the first electronic general-purpose computer. It was Turing-complete, digital, and capable of being reprogrammed to solve "a large class of numerical problems".

93. To select text by shading as you drag the mouse arrow over the text is known as?

To highlight

94. Another word for 'Graphics for a word processor'?

Clip art

95. What is JPG?

A format for an image file.

96. A dual-layer DVD is valued because it:

Can hold more data

97. In which decade was the transistor invented?

1940s.
On December 23, 1947, William Shockley, Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, of Bell Labs, announced their discovery of the point-contact germanium transistor to management.

98. How many diodes are in a full wave bridge rectifier?

4.
Device used to convert AC to DC voltage.

99. In what terms the speed of net access is defined?

Kbps.
Short for kilobits per second, a measure of data transfer speed.

100. What is an FET?

Field Effect Transistor

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101. How do you subscribe to an Internet mailing list?

Send e-mail to the list manager.

102. Computers calculate numbers in what mode?

Binary.

103. The letters, "DOS" stand for?

Disk Operating System.

104. What is a valid e-mail address?

globalguideline@yahoo.com

105. What does CPU stand for?

Central Processing Unit.

106. Once the active medium is excited, the first photons of light are produced by which physical process?

Spontaneous emission.
Spontaneous emission is what you see with most "glow in the dark" toys. You excite the toy by exposing it to bright light, then the toy glows in the dark by spontaneously emitting photons as the excited atoms relax back down to their normal state.

107. List a name of any search engine?

Google.

108. The "desktop" of a computer refers to?

The visible screen.

109. Your computer has gradually slowed down. What's the most likely cause?

Adware/spyware is infecting your PC.

110. In a Digital circuit, what is 1 'AND' 1?

1.

111. What is the difference between the Internet and an intranet?

One is public, the other is private.

112. Modem stands for?

Modulator Demodulater.
A modem (modulator-demodulator) is a device or program that enables a computer to transmit data over, for example, telephone or cable lines.

113. Which device can be used to store charge?

Capacitor.
Can be used in filtering circuits, also.

114. Blue is what number on the resistor color code?

6.

115. Changing computer language of 1's and 0's to characters that a person can understand is?

Decode.

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116. What's a web browser?

A software program that allows you to access sites on the World Wide Web.

117. http://www.globalguideline.com - is an example of what?

A URL.
A URL (Uniform {or Universal} Resource Locator) is an address for a specific document found on the Web. It is made up of several components: a domain name, the directories and subdirectories of the site, and the extension. To learn about these parts of a URL, visit the Evaluating Web Sites tutorial.

118. How many bits is a byte?

8.
The byte (/ˈbaɪt/) is a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications that most commonly consists of eight bits.

119. What does AC and DC stand for in the electrical field?

Alternating Current and Direct Current.
Electricity is voltage and current. Voltage is electrical pressure, and current is the flow of charged particles. The difference between alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) is that the electrons in an AC circuit regularly reverse their direction. In a DC circuit electrons always flow in the same direction.

120. The average power (in watts) used by a 20 to 25 inch home color television is?

70-100.
About the same as as the most popular light bulb size.

121. 'DTP' computer abbreviation usually means?

DeskTop Publishing.

122. The input used by an antenna or cable to a TV set uses frequencies called?

RF.
RF is radio frequency. IF is intermediate frequency used inside the TV for processing. AF is audio frequency. SAP is second audio program which may have another language or other soundtrack as an option to the main soundtrack.

123. Compact discs, (according to the original CD specifications) hold how many minutes of music?

74 mins.
According to many stories surrounding the origin of the compact disc, 74 minutes was settled on because it would comfortably contain all of Beethoven's 9th symphony on one disc. Although some stories reference a specific Sony higher-up who claimed this as his favorite piece of music, stories differ. All that's known for sure is that Sony insisted on this and won out over Phillips' original 60 minute proposal.

124. What is the term to ask the computer to put information in order numerically or alphabetically?

Sort

125. Voltage is sometimes referred to as EMF, or Electromotive?

Force.
The term EMF, or Electromotive Force, its use now in decline, is attributed to Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745-1827). Today we generally use the term "voltage" - can you guess why we call it that?

126. Larger buildings may be supplied with a medium voltage electricity supply, and will required a substation or mini-sub. What is the main item of equipment contained in these?

Transformer.
The transformer is used to transform a medium voltage supply to a low voltage supply, e.g. from 11 000 V to 400 V. A transformer is rated in kVA, kilo-Volt-Amps, which is a measurement of electrical power.

127. What does EPROM stand for?

Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory.
A chip found in alomst every microprocessor.

128. What was the active medium used in the first working laser ever constructed?

A ruby rod.
Theodore Maiman built the first working laser using a ruby rod while working at Hughes Research Laboratories in Malibu, California. It lased for the first time on May 16, 1960.

129. Who co-created the UNIX operating system in 1969 with Dennis Richie?

Ken Thompson

130. '.BAK' extension refers usually to what kind of file?

Backup file

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131. Where is the headquarters of Intel located?

Santa Clara, California.

132. 'CD' computer abbreviation usually means?

Compact Disc.
Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format. The format was originally developed to store and play only sound recordings but was later adapted for storage of data (CD-ROM).

133. In which decade was the ARRL founded?

1910s.
On April 6, 1914, Hiram Percy Maxim proposed the formation of the American Radio Relay League.

134. Who built the world's first binary digit computer: Z1?

Konrad Zuse.

135. What will a UPS be used for in a building?

To provide power to essential equipment.
UPS stands for Uninterruptible Power Supply. Examples of equipment that may require a UPS supply are computers, fire detection systems, hospital operating theatre equipment and escape route lighting.

136. What are three types of lasers?

Gas, solid state, diode.
The first laser was a solid state laser. Solid state refers to any solid material like a glass rod. Diode lasers are very common because they are used to read compact disks and digital video disks in computers, CD players, and DVD players. Before diode lasers, the most common type of laser may have been the helium-neon laser, in which the active medium is a combination of the two gasses helium and neon.

137. "FET" is a type of transistor, Its full name is ________ Effect Transistor?

Field.
The terminals of FETs are called gate, drain and source. You might be more familiar with bipolar junction transistors (BJTs), which have terminals called base, collector and emitter. FETs were conceptualized first, but BJTs were easier to produce and so developed sooner.

138. In which country The NTSC (National Television Standards Committee) is also used?

Japan.

139. Which is not an acceptable method of distributing small power outlets throughout an open plan office area?

Extension Cords.
Extension cords can be a tripping hazard, and can be easily damaged, causing an unsafe situation. There are many ways of safely getting power to each work place, where wiring is protected and concealed.

140. After the first photons of light are produced, which process is responsible for amplification of the light?

Stimulated emission.
The word "laser" is actually an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. Atoms or molecules of the active medium that have been excited to a higher energy level are stimulated by a passing photon to relax to a lower energy level and emit a photon that is indistinguishable from the passing photon, thereby increasing the number of photons like the incident one.

141. What do we call a network whose elements may be separated by some distance? It usually involves two or more small networks and dedicated high-speed telephone lines?

WAN (Wide Area Network)

142. Who created Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)?

Phil Zimmermann.
Phil Zimmermann created the first version of PGP encryption in 1991. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is a data encryption and decryption computer program that provides cryptographic privacy and authentication for data communication. PGP is often used for signing, encrypting and decrypting texts, E-mails, files, directories and whole disk partitions to increase the security of e-mail communications.

143. Electromagnetic coils on the neck of the picture tube or tubes which pull the electron beam from side to side and up and down are called?

Yoke.
Twisting the yoke will tilt the picture. A projection color television uses three picture tubes and yokes for red, green and blue light.

144. The sampling rate, (how many samples per second are stored) for a CD is...?

44.1 kHz.
CDs reproduce 44,100 samples per second. Which has a maximum frequency reproduction of 22,050 Hz, or just a hair past the upper limit of human hearing. In this way CDs can theoretically reproduce any frequency in the human hearing range.

145. '.TMP' extension refers usually to what kind of file?

Temporary file.

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146. '.TXT' extension refers usually to what kind of file?

Text File.

147. What was the first ARPANET message?

"lo"

148. In what year was the "@" chosen for its use in e-mail addresses?

1972

149. What does AM mean?

Amplitude modulation.
Amplitude modulation was the first type to be used in radio. It works well with HF and morse code.

150. '.JPG' extension refers usually to what kind of file?

Image file.

151. What do we call a collection of two or more computers that are located within a limited distance of each other and that are connected to each other directly or indirectly?

Local Area Network

152. Which consists of two plates separated by a dielectric and can store a charge?

Capacitor.
Useful in tuning and filtering circuits, it blocks DC while passing AC. How much charge a capacitor can store is its capacitance, measured in farads.nn

153. The transformer that develops the high voltage in a home television is commonly called?

Flyback.
The flyback is usually connected to the system that pulls the electron beam across the screen in one direction to 'paint' a line of the image and then returns in the other direction much faster.

154. In a color television set using a picture tube a high voltage is used to accelerate electron beams to light the screen. That voltage is about?

25 thousand volts.
This voltage often remains in storage even if the set is unplugged. Although the voltage is very high it has very low power but it can be dangerous because your body jumps if brought in contact.

155. What is United States television broadcast standard?

NTSC.
PAL and SECAM are standards used in other countries. RGB stands for red, green, and blue - the colors of light used to create an image in a color tv set and is often used as a format name for computer monitors.

156. '.INI' extension refers usually to what kind of file?

System file

157. 'DB' computer abbreviation usually means?

Database

158. When measuring the characteristics of a small-signal amplifier, say for a radio receiver, one might be concerned with its "Noise..."?

Figure.
"Noise figure" is one critical parameter for determining the "quality" of a low-noise, small-signal, amplifier, and perhaps more importantly, the sensitivity of the overall receiver system. It is especially important for VHF (very high frequency) - and higher frequency - designs where most of the undesired "noise" (noise that masks or overpowers the desired signals) is generated internal to the electronics itself. In HF (high frequency) applications, atmospheric noise plays a much larger role in determining overall useful sensitivity, so a circuit's "noise figure" is less important.

159. In which year was MIDI(dress) introduced?

1983

160. What does the term PLC stand for?

Programmable Logic Controller.
Used in manufacturing, engineering, and process operations.

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161. A given signal's second harmonic is twice the given signal's __________ frequency...?

Fundamental.
A given signal's second harmonic is twice the given signal's fundamental frequency. Harmonics are generated when there are non-linearities in an amplifier (there are always non-linearities). The worse the non-linearities, the more harmonics. A signal at 27.5 MHz (approximate frequency for US citizen's band) would have a second harmonic at 55.0 MHz (on US channel 2!). Can you see why there might be problems? A CB operator might do well to place a low-pass filter on his radio.

162. What is the relationship between resistivity r and conductivity s?

R = 1/s

163. '.MOV' extension refers usually to what kind of file?

Animation/movie file

164. 'OS' computer abbreviation usually means?

Operating System.

165. What is part of a database that holds only one type of information?

Field.

166. Which motor is NOT suitable for use as a DC machine?

Squirrel cage motor.
The squirrel cage motor is the only one without any connection to the armature.

167. What is the first step to getting output from a laser is to excite an active medium. What is this process called?

Pumping.
A collection of atoms or molecules that can be excited to a higher energy state is called an active medium. Before lasing can occur, the active media is "pumped". The process of raising the atoms in the active media from a lower energy state to a higher state is like pumping water up from a well.

168. What frequency range is the High Frequency band?

3 to 30 MHz.
The HF band is based on frequencies 3 to 30 Mhz. AM radio stations are in the HF band but normally are stated in kilohertz.

169. In which decade with the first transatlantic radio broadcast occur?

1900s.
On December 12, 1901, a radio transmission received by Guglielmo Marconi resulted in the first transmission of a transatlantic wireless signal (Morse Code) from Poldhu, Cornwall, to St. John's, Newfoundland.

170. In which decade was the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) founded?

1880s.
The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) was formed in 1963 by the merger of the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE, founded 1912) and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE, founded 1884).

171. What does VVVF stand for?

Variable Voltage Variable Frequency.
It is a method of controlling the speed of an AC induction motor, whereby speed, current and torque can all be accurately controlled.

172. The most common format for a home video recorder is VHS. VHS stands for?

Video Home System.
JVC (Japan Victor Corporation) and Matsushita (Panasonic) developed the VHS format to compete with Sony which developed the Beta format as the first home video cassette recorder. VHS originally stood for Vertical Helical Scan, but now means Video Home System.

173. Made from a variety of materials, such as carbon, which inhibits the flow of current...?

Resistor.
So named because it resists (or inhibits) the flow of current.

174. Who developed Yahoo?

David Filo & Jerry Yang.

175. Who is largely responsible for breaking the German Enigma codes, created a test that provided a foundation for artificial intelligence?

Alan Turing.

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176. '.MPG' extension refers usually to what kind of file?

Animation/movie file.

177. What is the purpose of choke in tube light is?

To increase the voltage momentarily.

178. Which is a type of Electrically-Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory?

Flash.
It's commonly used for MP3 players, computer BIOS code and "thumb" drives. Originally developed in Japan by Toshiba, it has become quite popular for products requiring non-volatile erasable memory. Flash devices have a limited number of erase cycles (typically 10,000 to 1,000,000 cycles) so they're not as good a choice for applications in which the data changes constantly. However, since it has no moving parts (unlike a hard disk) it is an excellent choice for storing the operating code for small personal electronics like PDAs, cell phones, digital cameras, and the data in items like MP3 players.

179. Most modern TV's draw power even if turned off. The circuit the power is used in does what function?

Remote control.
Some authorities are recommending TV's, VCR's and Stereo's be connected to power strips with switches and turned off when not in use to save energy. Your remote will not work until power is switched back on.

180. In which decade was the SPICE simulator introduced?

C. 1970s
SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) was introduced in May 1972 by the University of Berkeley, California.