1. Please explain is it possible to use COM component in PHP?

Yes, it's possible to integrate (Distributed) Component Object Model components ((D)COM) in PHP scripts which is provided as a framework.

2. Tell me whether it is possible to share a single instance of a Memcache between multiple PHP projects?

Yes, it is possible to share a single instance of Memcache between multiple projects. Memcache is a memory store space, and you can run memcache on one or more servers. You can also configure your client to speak to a particular set of instances. So, you can run two different Memcache processes on the same host and yet they are completely independent. Unless, if you have partitioned your data, then it becomes necessary to know from which instance to get the data from or to put into.

3. Explain what does the unset() function means?

The unset() function is dedicated for variable management. It will make a variable undefined.

4. How to update Memcached when you make changes to PHP?

When PHP changes you can update Memcached by

• Clearing the Cache proactively: Clearing the cache when an insert or update is made
• Resetting the Cache: It is similar to the first method but rather than just deleting the keys and waiting for the next request for the data to refresh the cache, reset the values after the insert or update.

5. Do you know what does $GLOBALS means?

$GLOBALS is associative array including references to all variables which are currently defined in the global scope of the script.

6. Explain me what is the goto statement useful for?

The goto statement can be placed to enable jumping inside the PHP program. The target is pointed by a label followed by a colon, and the instruction is specified as a goto statement followed by the desired target label.

7. Do you know what is the function mysql_pconnect() usefull for?

mysql_pconnect() ensure a persistent connection to the database, it means that the connection do not close when the the PHP script ends.

8. Explain me what is the meaning of a Persistent Cookie?

A persistent cookie is permanently stored in a cookie file on the browser's computer. By default, cookies are temporary and are erased if we close the browser.

9. Explain how can PHP and Javascript interact?

PHP and Javascript cannot directly interacts since PHP is a server side language and Javascript is a client side language. However we can exchange variables since PHP is able to generate Javascript code to be executed by the browser and it is possible to pass specific variables back to PHP via the URL.

10. Tell me how to find current date and time?

The date() function provides you with a means of retrieving the current date and time, applying the format integer parameters indicated in your script to the timestamp provided or the current local time if no timestamp is given. In simplified terms, passing a time parameter is optional - if you don't, the current timestamp will be used.

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11. Explain what are the two main string operators?

The first is the concatenation operator (‘.'), which returns the concatenation of its right and left arguments. The second is (‘.='), which appends the argument on the right to the argument on the left.

12. Tell me what is the use of "enctype" attribute in a html form?

The enctype attribute determines how the form-data should be encoded when submitting it to the server. We need to set enctype as "multipart/form-data" when we are using a form for uploading files

13. Explain what is the difference between $var and $$var?

They are both variables. But $var is a variable with a fixed name. $$var is a variable who's name is stored in $var. For example, if $var contains "message", $$var is the same as $message.

14. Tell me what is the difference between ereg_replace() and eregi_replace()?

The function eregi_replace() is identical to the function ereg_replace() except that it ignores case distinction when matching alphabetic characters.

15. Explain me what is the use of header() function in php?

The header() function sends a raw HTTP header to a client browser. Remember that this function must be called before sending the actual out put. For example, You do not print any HTML element before using this function.

16. Tell me what is the use of the function htmlentities?

htmlentities Convert all applicable characters to HTML entities This function is identical to htmlspecialchars() in all ways, except with htmlentities(), all characters which have HTML character entity equivalents are translated into these entities.

17. Explain what does $_SERVER means?

$_SERVER is an array including information created by the web server such as paths, headers, and script locations.

18. Tell me how is the ternary conditional operator used in PHP?

It is composed of three expressions: a condition, and two operands describing what instruction should be performed when the specified condition is true or false as follows:

Expression_1 ? Expression_2 : Expression_3;

19. Tell me is it possible to submit a form with a dedicated button?

It is possible to use the document.form.submit() function to submit the form. For example: <input type=button value=”SUBMIT” onClick=”document.form.submit()”>

20. Explain me is multiple inheritance supported in PHP?

PHP includes only single inheritance, it means that a class can be extended from only one single class using the keyword ‘extended'.

21. Tell me how to execute an sql query? How to fetch its result?

$my_qry = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM `users` WHERE `u_id`='1'; ");
$result = mysql_fetch_array($my_qry) or die ('Error: Unable to get data.');
echo $result['First_name'];

22. Tell me what does the scope of variables means?

The scope of a variable is the context within which it is defined. For the most part all PHP variables only have a single scope. This single scope spans included and required files as well.

23. Tell me how can we connect to a MySQL database from a PHP script?

To be able to connect to a MySQL database, we must use mysql_connect() function as follows:

<!--?php $database = mysql_connect("HOST", "USER_NAME", "PASSWORD"); mysql_select_db("DATABASE_NAME",$database); ?-->

24. Tell us how to redirect a page in php?

The following code can be used for it,
header("Location: http://www.globalguideline.com/");

25. Tell me will a comparison of an integer 12 and a string “13” work in PHP?

“13” and 12 can be compared in PHP since it casts everything to the integer type.

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26. Tell me what should we do to be able to export data into an Excel file?

The most common and used way is to get data into a format supported by Excel. For example, it is possible to write a .csv file, to choose for example comma as separator between fields and then to open the file with Excel.

27. Tell us how can we display the output directly to the browser?

To be able to display the output directly to the browser, we have to use the special tags <?= and ?>.

28. Tell me how can we change the maximum size of the files to be uploaded?

We can change the maximum size of files to be uploaded by changing upload_max_filesize in php.ini.

29. Tell me how is it possible to remove escape characters from a string?

The stripslashes function enables us to remove the escape characters before apostrophes in a string.

30. Explain what is the main difference between require() and require_once()?

require() and require_once() perform the same task except that the second function checks if the PHP script is already included or not before executing it.

(same for include_once() and include())

31. Explain me what is x+ mode in fopen() used for?

Read/Write. Creates a new file. Returns FALSE and an error if file already exists

32. Tell me how to create a text file in php?

$filename = "/home/user/guest/myTextFile.txt";
$file = fopen( $filename, "w" );
if( $file == false )
{
echo ( "Error in opening new file" ); exit();
}
fwrite( $file, "This is a simple testn" );
fclose( $file );

33. Tell me how do you define a constant?

Using define() directive, like define ("MYCONSTANT",150)

34. Tell me how is it possible to propagate a session id?

It is possible to propagate a session id via cookies or URL parameters.

35. Tell me is it possible to protect special characters in a query string?

Yes, we use the urlencode() function to be able to protect special characters.

36. Explain what is the difference between for and foreach?

for is expressed as follows:

for (expr1; expr2; expr3)

statement

The first expression is executed once at the beginning. In each iteration, expr2 is evaluated. If it is TRUE, the loop continues and the statements inside for are executed. If it evaluates to FALSE, the execution of the loop ends. expr3 is tested at the end of each iteration.

However, foreach provides an easy way to iterate over arrays and it is only used with arrays and objects.

37. Tell me what types of loops exist in php?

☛ for,
☛ while,
☛ do while and
☛ foreach

38. Explain me what is sql injection?

SQL injection is a malicious code injection technique. It exploiting SQL vulnerabilities in Web applications

39. Do you know what is the use of the function ‘imagetypes()'?

imagetypes() gives the image format and types supported by the current version of GD-PHP.

40. Tell me when a conditional statement is ended with an endif?

When the original if was followed by : and then the code block without braces.

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41. Tell me what does the array operator ‘===' means?

$a === $b TRUE if $a and $b have the same key/value pairs in the same order and of the same types.

42. Tell me how can we pass the variable through the navigation between the pages?

It is possible to pass the variables between the PHP pages using sessions, cookies or hidden form fields.

43. Tell me how can we get the error when there is a problem to upload a file?

$_FILES[‘userfile'][‘error'] contains the error code associated with the uploaded file.

44. Tell me how can we define a variable accessible in functions of a PHP script?

This feature is possible using the global keyword.

45. Tell me how can we check the value of a given variable is alphanumeric?

It is possible to use the dedicated function, ctype_alnum to check whether it is an alphanumeric value or not.

46. Tell me what is the importance of "action" attribute in a html form?

The action attribute determines where to send the form-data in the form submission.

47. Tell me what is use of in_array() function in php?

in_array used to checks if a value exists in an array

48. Tell us how can we access the data sent through the URL with the POST method?

To access the data sent this way, you use the $_POST array.

Imagine you have a form field called ‘var' on the form, when the user clicks submit to the post form, you can then access the value like this:

$_POST[“var”];

49. Tell me is it possible to remove the HTML tags from data?

The strip_tags() function enables us to clean a string from the HTML tags.

50. Tell me are Parent constructors called implicitly inside a class constructor?

No, a parent constructor have to be called explicitly as follows:

parent::constructor($value)

51. Do you know what is the function func_num_args() used for?

The function func_num_args() is used to give the number of parameters passed into a function.

52. Tell me which function gives us the number of affected entries by a query?

mysql_affected_rows() return the number of entries affected by an SQL query.

53. Tell me what does the initials of PHP stand for?

PHP means PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor.

54. Tell me what is mean by an associative array?

Associative arrays are arrays that use string keys is called associative arrays.

55. Do you know what is use of count() function in php?

count() is used to count all elements in an array, or something in an object

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56. Tell me what are the correct and the most two common way to start and finish a PHP block of code?

The two most common ways to start and finish a PHP script are:
<?php [ — PHP code—- ] ?> and
<? [— PHP code —] ?>

57. Tell me what is the difference between Exception::getMessage and Exception::getLine?

Exception::getMessage lets us getting the Exception message and Exception::getLine lets us getting the line in which the exception occurred.

58. Suppose the variable $var1 is set to 10 and the $var2 is set to the character var1, what's the value of $$var2?

$$var2 contains the value 10.

59. Explain which cryptographic extension provide generation and verification of digital signatures?

The PHP-openssl extension provides several cryptographic operations including generation and verification of digital signatures.

60. Tell me what are the functions to be used to get the image's properties (size, width and height)?

The functions are getimagesize() for size, imagesx() for width and imagesy() for height.

61. Explain what is the difference between mysql_fetch_array() and mysql_fetch_assoc()?

mysql_fetch_assoc function Fetch a result row as an associative array, While mysql_fetch_array() fetches an associative array, a numeric array, or both

62. Tell us how to set cookies in PHP?

Setcookie("PHP", "IQA", time()+3600);

63. How to create a mysql connection in PHP?

mysql_connect(servername,username,password);

64. Do you know how to delete a file from the system?

Unlink() deletes the given file from the file system.

65. Tell me what is the main difference between PHP 4 and PHP 5?

PHP 5 presents many additional OOP (Object Oriented Programming) features.

66. Tell me how do I check if a given variable is empty?

If we want to check whether a variable has a value or not, it is possible to use the empty() function.

67. Tell me in PHP, objects are they passed by value or by reference?

In PHP, objects passed by value.

68. Explain what does $_FILES means?

$_FILES is an associative array composed of items sent to the current script via the HTTP POST method.

69. Tell me what the difference between the ‘BITWISE AND' operator and the ‘LOGICAL AND' operator?

$a and $b: TRUE if both $a and $b are TRUE.

$a & $b: Bits that are set in both $a and $b are set.

70. Do you know is it possible to extend the execution time of a php script?

The use of the set_time_limit(int seconds) enables us to extend the execution time of a php script. The default limit is 30 seconds.

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71. Explain what does the expression Exception::__toString means?

Exception::__toString gives the String representation of the exception.

72. Tell me what does $_ENV means?

$_ENV is an associative array of variables sent to the current PHP script via the environment method.

73. Tell me how to initiate a session in PHP?

The use of the function session_start() lets us activating a session.

74. Tell me how is it possible to return a value from a function?

A function returns a value using the instruction ‘return $value;'.

75. Tell me how is it possible to know the number of rows returned in result set?

The function mysql_num_rows() returns the number of rows in a result set.

76. Tell me what is needed to be able to use image function?

GD library is needed to be able execute image functions.

77. Tell me how to get the value of current session id?

session_id() function returns the session id for the current session.

78. Tell me what is the use of isset() in php?

This function is used to determine if a variable is set and is not NULL

79. Tell me how to Retrieve a Cookie Value?

eg : echo $_COOKIE["user"];

80. Do you know how to declare an array in php?

Eg : var $arr = array('apple', 'grape', 'lemon');

81. Tell me how stop the execution of a php scrip?

exit() function is used to stop the execution of a page

82. Tell me what is the use of "ksort" in php?

It is used for sort an array by key in reverse order.

83. Tell me what is the actually used PHP version?

Version 5 is the actually used version of PHP.

84. Explain what is the function file_get_contents() usefull for?

file_get_contents() lets reading a file and storing it in a string variable.

85. Do you know when sessions ends?

Sessions automatically ends when the PHP script finishs executing, but can be manually ended using the session_write_close().

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86. Do you know what is the differences between $a != $b and $a !== $b?

!= means inequality (TRUE if $a is not equal to $b) and !== means non-identity (TRUE if $a is not identical to $b).

87. Explain me is it possible to destroy a cookie?

Yes, it is possible by setting the cookie with a past expiration time.

88. Explain what are the three classes of errors that can occur in PHP?

The three basic classes of errors are notices (non-critical), warnings (serious errors) and fatal errors (critical errors).

89. Tell me how can we determine whether a variable is set?

The boolean function isset determines if a variable is set and is not NULL.

90. Tell me what does accessing a class via :: means?

:: is used to access static methods that do not require object initialization.

91. Explain what does the unlink() function means?

The unlink() function is dedicated for file system handling. It simply deletes the file given as entry.

92. Explain me how failures in execution are handled with include() and require() functions?

If the function require() cannot access to the file then it ends with a fatal error. However, the include() function gives a warning and the PHP script continues to execute.

93. Explain how to run the interactive PHP shell from the command line interface?

Just use the PHP CLI program with the option -a as follows:

php -a

94. Object-Oriented Methodology in PHP?

Object orientation is a software/Web development methodology that is based on the modeling a real world system.An object is the core concept involved in the object orientation. An object is the copy of the real world entity. An object oriented model is a collection of objects and its inter-relationships

95. Explain how we can retrieve the data in the result set of MySQL using PHP?

☛ 1. mysql_fetch_row
☛ 2. mysql_fetch_array
☛ 3. mysql_fetch_object
☛ 4. mysql_fetch_assoc

96. Tell me what is the difference between the functions strstr() and stristr()?

The string function strstr(string allString, string occ) returns part of allString from the first occurrence of occ to the end of allString. This function is case-sensitive. stristr() is identical to strstr() except that it is case insensitive.

97. Tell me what is the difference between characters 34 and x34?

34 is octal 34 and x34 is hex 34.

98. Tell me what is the default session time in php?

The default session time in php is until closing of browser

99. Write a program using while loop in PHP?

$my_qry = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM `users` WHERE `u_id`='1'; ");
while($result = mysql_fetch_array($my_qry))
{
echo $result['First_name'.]."
";
}

100. Explain me differences between GET and POST methods?

We can send 1024 bytes using GET method but POST method can transfer large amount of data and POST is the secure method than GET method.

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101. Tell me how a constant is defined in a PHP script?

The define() directive lets us defining a constant as follows:

define (“ACONSTANT”, 123);

102. Tell me what does the PHP error ‘Parse error in PHP – unexpected T_variable at line x' means?

This is a PHP syntax error expressing that a mistake at the line x stops parsing and executing the program.

103. Tell me how to find the position of the first occurrence of a substring in a string?

strpos() is used to find the position of the first occurrence of a substring in a string

104. Explain me what is the difference between explode() and split() functions?

Split function splits string into array by regular expression. Explode splits a string into array by string.

105. Explain me the difference between include and require?

If the file is not found by require(), it will cause a fatal error and halt the execution of the script. If the file is not found by include(), a warning will be issued, but execution will continue.

106. Tell me what's the difference between include and require?

It's how they handle failures. If the file is not found by require(), it will cause a fatal error and halt the execution of the script. If the file is not found by include(), a warning will be issued, but execution will continue.

107. Tell me how to set a page as a home page in a php based site?

index.php is the default name of the home page in php based sites

108. Explain difference between urlencode and urldecode?

This method is best when encode a string to used in a query part of a url. it returns a string in which all non-alphanumeric characters except -_. have replece with a percentege(%) sign . the urldecode->Decodes url to encode string as any %and other symbole are decode by the use of the urldecode() function.

109. Tell me what is the main difference between require() and require_once()?

require() and require_once() perform the same task except that the second function checks if the PHP script is already included or not before executing it.

(same for include_once() and include())

110. Explain what does the function get_magic_quotes_gpc() means?

The function get_magic_quotes_gpc() tells us whether the magic quotes is switched on or no.

111. Do you know what's the difference between __sleep and __wakeup?

__sleep returns the array of all the variables that need to be saved, while __wakeup retrieves them.

112. Explain me what is the difference between $_FILES[‘userfile'][‘name'] and $_FILES[‘userfile'][‘tmp_name']?

$_FILES[‘userfile'][‘name'] represents the original name of the file on the client machine,

$_FILES[‘userfile'][‘tmp_name'] represents the temporary filename of the file stored on the server.

113. Tell me how is it possible to parse a configuration file?

The function parse_ini_file() enables us to load in the ini file specified in filename, and returns the settings in it in an associative array.

114. Tell me how can we determine whether a PHP variable is an instantiated object of a certain class?

To be able to verify whether a PHP variable is an instantiated object of a certain class we use instanceof.

115. Tell us what does $_COOKIE means?

$_COOKIE is an associative array of variables sent to the current PHP script using the HTTP Cookies.

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116. Tell me what is the definition of a session?

A session is a logical object enabling us to preserve temporary data across multiple PHP pages.

117. What is the most convenient hashing method to be used to hash passwords?

It is preferable to use crypt() which natively supports several hashing algorithms or the function hash() which supports more variants than crypt() rather than using the common hashing algorithms such as md5, sha1 or sha256 because they are conceived to be fast. hence, hashing passwords with these algorithms can vulnerability.

118. Do you know how can we check the value of a given variable is a number?

It is possible to use the dedicated function, is_numeric() to check whether it is a number or not.

119. Do you know how can PHP and HTML interact?

It is possible to generate HTML through PHP scripts, and it is possible to pass informations from HTML to PHP.

120. How send email in php?

To send email using PHP, you use the mail() function. This mail() function accepts 5 parameters as follows (the last 2 are optional). You need webserver, you can't send email from localhost. eg : mail($to,$subject,$message,$headers);

121. Tell me how to find the length of a string?

strlen() function used to find the length of a string

122. Tell me how to create a session? How to set a value in session? How to Remove data from a session?

Create session : session_start();
Set value into session : $_SESSION['USER_ID']=1;
Remove data from a session : unset($_SESSION['USER_ID'];

123. What is difference between require_once(), require(), include()?

require() includes and evaluates a specific file, while require_once() does that only if it has not been included before (on the same page). So, require_once() is recommended to use when you want to include a file where you have a lot of functions for example. This way you make sure you don't include the file more times and you will not get the "function re-declared" error.

124. Write down the code for save an uploaded file using php?

if ($_FILES["file"]["error"] == 0)
{
move_uploaded_file($_FILES["file"]["tmp_name"],
"upload/" . $_FILES["file"]["name"]);
echo "Stored in: " . "upload/" . $_FILES["file"]["name"];
}

125. Explain me what is the importance of "method" attribute in a html form?

"method" attribute determines how to send the form-data into the server. There are two methods, get and post. The default method is get. This sends the form information by appending it on the URL. Information sent from a form with the POST method is invisible to others and has no limits on the amount of information to send.

126. Explain me difference between mysql_connect and mysql_pconnect?

There is a good page in the php manual on the subject, in short mysql_pconnect() makes a persistent connection to the database which means a SQL link that do not close when the execution of your script ends. mysql_connect() provides only for the database new connection while using mysql_pconnect, the function would first try to find a (persistent) link that's already open with the same host, username and password. If one is found, an identifier for it will be returned instead of opening a new connection... the connection to the SQL server will not be closed when the execution of the script ends. Instead, the link will remain open for future use.

127. Tell me how do you execute a PHP script from the command line?

Just use the PHP command line interface (CLI) and specify the file name of the script to be executed as follows:

php script.php

128. Tell me how can I display text with a PHP script?

Two methods are possible:

<!--?php echo "Method 1"; print "Method 2"; ?-->

129. Tell me how do I escape data before storing it into the database?

addslashes function enables us to escape data before storage into the database.

130. Explain how is it possible to cast types in PHP?

The name of the output type have to be specified in parentheses before the variable which is to be cast as follows:

* (int), (integer) – cast to integer

* (bool), (boolean) – cast to boolean

* (float), (double), (real) – cast to float

* (string) – cast to string

* (array) – cast to array

* (object) – cast to object

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131. Tell us what is the difference between session_unregister() and session_unset()?

The session_unregister() function unregister a global variable from the current session and the session_unset() function free all session variables.

132. What is faster in PHP?

1- Combining two variables as follows:

$variable1 = ‘Hello ‘;

$variable2 = ‘World';

$variable3 = $variable1.$variable2;

Or

2- $variable3 = “$variable1$variable2”;

$variable3 will contain “Hello World”. The first code is faster than the second code especially for large large sets of data.

133. Explain what is the static variable in function useful for?

A static variable is defined within a function only the first time and its value can be modified during function calls as follows:

<!--?php
function testFunction()
{
static $testVariable = 1;
echo $testVariable;
$testVariable++;
}

testFunction(); //1
testFunction(); //2
testFunction(); //3
?-->

134. Tell me how the result set of Mysql be handled in PHP?

The result set can be handled using mysql_fetch_array, mysql_fetch_assoc, mysql_fetch_object or mysql_fetch_row.

135. Tell me what type of operation is needed when passing values through a form or an URL?

If we would like to pass values througn a form or an URL then we need to encode and to decode them using htmlspecialchars() and urlencode().

136. Tell me which programming language does PHP resemble to?

PHP syntax resembles Perl and C

137. Tell me what are the different types of errors in PHP?

Here are three basic types of runtime errors in PHP:

☛ 1. Notices: These are trivial, non-critical errors that PHP encounters while executing a script - for example, accessing a variable that has not yet been defined. By default, such errors are not displayed to the user at all - although you can change this default behavior.
☛ 2. Warnings: These are more serious errors - for example, attempting to include() a file which does not exist. By default, these errors are displayed to the user, but they do not result in script termination.
☛ 3. Fatal errors: These are critical errors - for example, instantiating an object of a non-existent class, or calling a non-existent function. These errors cause the immediate termination of the script, and PHP's default behavior is to display them to the user when they take place.

138. Tell me what is the use of explode() function?

Syntax :
array explode ( string $delimiter , string $string [, int $limit ] );

This function breaks a string into an array. Each of the array elements is a substring of string formed by splitting it on boundaries formed by the string delimiter.

139. Explain me how to include a file to a php page?

We can include a file using "include() " or "require()" function with file path as its parameter.

140. Explain me what is the use of 'print' in php?

This is not actually a real function, It is a language construct. So you can use with out parentheses with its argument list.
Example

print('PHP Interview questions');
print 'Job Interview ';

141. Tell me how to strip whitespace (or other characters) from the beginning and end of a string?

The trim() function removes whitespaces or other predefined characters from both sides of a string.

142. Tell me what are the encryption techniques in PHP?

☛ MD5 PHP implements the MD5 hash algorithm using the md5 function,
eg : $encrypted_text = md5 ($msg);

☛ mcrypt_encrypt :- string mcrypt_encrypt ( string $cipher , string $key , string $data , string $mode [, string $iv ] );
Encrypts plaintext with given parameters

143. Explain what are the different errors in PHP?

In PHP, there are three types of runtime errors, they are:

☛ Warnings:
These are important errors. Example: When we try to include () file which is not available. These errors are showed to the user by default but they will not result in ending the script.

☛ Notices:
These errors are non-critical and trivial errors that come across while executing the script in PHP. Example: trying to gain access the variable which is not defined. These errors are not showed to the users by default even if the default behavior is changed.

☛ Fatal errors:
These are critical errors. Example: instantiating an object of a class which does not exist or a non-existent function is called. These errors results in termination of the script immediately and default behavior of PHP is shown to them when they take place. Twelve different error types are used to represent these variations internally.

144. Tell me what is the meaning of a final class and a final method?

‘final' is introduced in PHP5. Final class means that this class cannot be extended and a final method cannot be overrided.

145. Explain how is it possible to set an infinite execution time for PHP script?

The set_time_limit(0) added at the beginning of a script sets to infinite the time of execution to not have the PHP error ‘maximum execution time exceeded'.It is also possible to specify this in the php.ini file.

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146. How can we access the data sent through the URL with the GET method?

In order to access the data sent via the GET method, we you use $_GET array like this:

www.globalguideline.com?var=value
$variable = $_GET[“var”]; this will now contain ‘value'

147. Tell me how can we automatically escape incoming data?

We have to enable the Magic quotes entry in the configuration file of PHP.

148. Tell me how can you pass a variable by reference?

To be able to pass a variable by reference, we use an ampersand in front of it, as follows $var1 = &$var2

149. Do you know what is the difference between mysql_fetch_object() and mysql_fetch_array()?

The mysql_fetch_object() function collects the first single matching record where mysql_fetch_array() collects all matching records from the table in an array.

150. Tell me how can we display information of a variable and readable by human with PHP?

To be able to display a human-readable result we use print_r().

151. Tell me how comparison of objects is done in PHP5?

We use the operator ‘==' to test is two object are instanced from the same class and have same attributes and equal values. We can test if two object are refering to the same instance of the same class by the use of the identity operator ‘==='.

152. Tell me what does PEAR stands for?

PEAR means “PHP Extension and Application Repository”. it extends PHP and provides a higher level of programming for web developers.

153. Tell me what is PEAR?

PEAR is a framework and distribution system for reusable PHP components. The project seeks to provide a structured library of code, maintain a system for distributing code and for managing code packages, and promote a standard coding style. PEAR is broken into three classes: PEAR Core Components, PEAR Packages, and PECL Packages. The Core Components include the base classes of PEAR and PEAR_Error, along with database, HTTP, logging, and e-mailing functions. The PEAR Packages include functionality providing for authentication, networking, and file system features, as well as tools for working with XML and HTML templates.

154. Explain me what are the differences between mysql_fetch_array(), mysql_fetch_object(), mysql_fetch_row()?

☛ Mysql_fetch_array Fetch a result row as an associative array, a numeric array, or both.
☛ mysql_fetch_object ( resource result ) Returns an object with properties that correspond to the fetched row and moves the internal data pointer ahead. Returns an object with properties that correspond to the fetched row, or FALSE if there are no more rows
☛ mysql_fetch_row() fetches one row of data from the result associated with the specified result identifier. The row is returned as an array. Each result column is stored in an array offset, starting at offset 0.

155. Tell us how to create an array of a group of items inside an HTML form?

We can create input fields with same name for "name" attribute with squire bracket at the end of the name of the name attribute, It passes data as an array to PHP.

☛ For instance:
<input name="MyArray[]" />
<input name="MyArray[]" />
<input name="MyArray[]" />
<input name="MyArray[]" />

156. Do you know what is the use of rand() in php?

It is used to generate random numbers. If called without the arguments it returns a pseudo-random integer between 0 and getrandmax(). If you want a random number between 6 and 12 (inclusive), for example, use rand(6, 12). This function does not generate cryptographically safe values, and should not be used for cryptographic uses. If you want a cryptographically secure value, consider using openssl_random_pseudo_bytes() instead.

157. Tell me what is the use of mysql_real_escape_string() function?

It is used to escapes special characters in a string for use in an SQL statement

158. How to select a database in PHP?

mysql_select_db($db_name);

159. Explain what is the difference between Session and Cookie?

The main difference between sessions and cookies is that sessions are stored on the server, and cookies are stored on the user's computers in the text file format. Cookies can not hold multiple variables, But Session can hold multiple variables. We can set expiry for a cookie, The session only remains active as long as the browser is open. Users do not have access to the data you stored in Session, Since it is stored in the server.Session is mainly used for login/logout purpose while cookies using for user activity tracking

160. Explain what is the use of "echo" in php?

It is used to print a data in the webpage, Example:
<?php echo 'Car insurance'; ?>
The following code print the text in the webpage

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161. Do you know what is PHP?

PHP is a server side scripting language commonly used for web applications. PHP has many frameworks and cms for creating websites. Even a non technical person can cretae sites using its CMS. WordPress, osCommerce are the famus CMS of php. It is also an object oriented programming language like java, C-sharp etc. It is very eazy for learning