1. What is an LOV?

An LOV is a scrollable popup window that provides the operator with either a single or multi column selection list.

2. What is an object group?

An object group is a container for a group of objects; you define an object group when you want to package related objects, so that you copy or reference them in other modules.

3. What is the difference between OLE Server & OLE Container?

An Ole server application creates ole Objects that are embedded or linked in ole Containers ex. Ole servers are ms_word & ms_excel. OLE containers provide a place to store, display and manipulate objects that are created by ole server applications. Ex. oracle forms is an example of an ole Container.

4. What is coordination Event?

Any event that makes a different record in the master block the current record is a coordination causing event.

5. Where is a procedure return in an external pl/SQL library executed at the client or at the server?

At the client.

6. Where is the external query executed at the client or the server?

At the server.

7. Why is it preferable to create a fewer no. of queries in the data model?

Because for each query, report has to open a separate cursor and has to rebind, execute and fetch data.

8. Why is a Where clause faster than a group filter or a format trigger?

Because in a where clause the condition is applied during data retrieval, then after retrieving the data.

9. Give the sequence of execution of the various report triggers?

Before form , After form , Before report, Between page, After report.

10. What are the triggers available in the reports?

Before report, Before form, After form , Between page, After report.

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11. What is bind reference and how can it be created?

Bind reference are used to replace the single value in sql, pl/sql statements a bind reference can be created using a (:) before a column or a parameter name.

12. What is the difference between boiler plat images and image items?

Boiler plate Images are static images (Either vector or bit map) that you import from the file system or database to use a graphical elements in your form, such as company logos and maps. Image items are special types of interface controls that store and display either vector or bitmap images. Like other items that store values, image items can be either base table items (items that relate directly to database columns) or control items. The definition of an image item is stored as part of the form module FMB and FMX files, but no image file is actually associated with an image item until the item is populate at run time.

13. What are different types of images?

Boiler plate images, Image Items

14. How can a cross product be created?

By selecting the cross products tool and drawing a new group surrounding the base group of the cross products.

15. How can a button be used in a report to give a drill down facility?

By setting the action associated with button to Execute pl/SQL option and using the SRW.Run_report function.

16. How is possible to restrict the user to a list of values while entering values for parameters?

By setting the Restrict To List property to true in the parameter property sheet.

17. How can I message to passed to the user from reports?

By using SRW.MESSAGE function.

18. How can a text file be attached to a report while creating in the report writer?

By using the link file property in the layout boiler plate property sheet.

19. How can a square be drawn in the layout editor of the report writer?

By using the rectangle tool while pressing the (Constraint) key.

20. How can values be passed between precompiler exits & Oracle call interface?

By using the statement EXECIAFGET & EXECIAFPUT.

21. How is it possible to select generate a select set for the query in the query property sheet?

By using the tables/columns button and then specifying the table and the column names.

22. What is a User_exit?

Calls the user exit named in the user_exit_string. Invokes a 3Gl program by name which has been properly linked into your current oracle forms executable.

23. What is relation between the window and canvas views?

Canvas views are the back ground objects on which you place the interface items (Text items), check boxes, radio groups etc.,) and boilerplate objects (boxes, lines, images etc.,) that operators interact with us they run your form . Each canvas views displayed in a window.

24. What are the different types of Delete details we can establish in Master-Details?

Cascade Isolate Non-isolate

25. What are different types of canvas views?

Content canvas views Stacked canvas views Horizontal toolbar vertical toolbar.

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26. What are the built-ins used for Creating and deleting groups?


27. What are the default parameter that appear at run time in the parameter screen?

Destype and Desname.

28. What is an anchoring object and what is its use?

An anchoring object is a print condition object which used to explicitly or implicitly anchor other objects to itself.

29. What is the use of break group?

A break group is used to display one record for one group ones. While multiple related records in other group can be displayed.

30. What is the use of hidden column?

A hidden column is used to when a column has to embed into boilerplate text.

31. What is the use of place holder column?

A placeholder column is used to hold calculated values at a specified place rather than allowing is to appear in the actual row where it has to appear.

32. How can a break order be created on a column in an existing group?

By dragging the column outside the group.

33. What are the various sub events a mouse double click event involves?

Double clicking the mouse consists of the mouse down, mouse up, mouse click, mouse down and mouse up events.

34. Use the add_group_column function to add a column to record group that was created at a design time?


35. Use the Add_group_row procedure to add a row to a static record group 1. true or false?


36. Any attempt to navigate programmatically to disabled form in a call_form stack is allowed?


37. What are the built-ins used for finding Object ID function?

FIND_GROUP(function) FIND_COLUMN(function)

38. What are built-ins associated with timers?

find_timer create_timer delete_timer

39. What is a difference between pre-select and pre-query?

Fires during the execute query and count query processing after oracle forms constructs the select statement to be issued, but before the statement is actually issued. The pre-query trigger fires just before oracle forms issues the select statement to the database after the operator as define the example records by entering the query criteria in enter query mode. Pre-query trigger fires before pre-select trigger.

40. What is WHEN-Database-record trigger?

Fires when oracle forms first marks a record as an insert or an update. The trigger fires as soon as oracle forms determines through validation that the record should be processed by the next post or commit as an insert or update. Generally occurs only when the operators modifies the first item in the record, and after the operator attempts to navigate out of the item.

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41. What is the remove on exit property?

For a modeless window, it determines whether oracle forms hides the window automatically when the operators navigates to an item in the another window.

42. What are different types of modules available in oracle form?

Form module - a collection of objects and code routines Menu modules - a collection of menus and menu item commands that together make up an application menu library module - a collection of user named procedures, functions and packages that can be called from other modules in the application

43. To execute row from being displayed that still use column in the row which property can be used?

Format trigger.

44. Atleast how many set of data must a data model have before a data model can be base on it?


45. What are the built-ins used for Getting cell values?


46. What are the built-in used for getting cell values?

Get_group_char_cell(function) Get_groupcell(function) Get_group_number_cell(function)

47. What are built-ins used for Processing rows?


48. What are the built-ins used for processing rows?

Get_group_row_count(function) Get_group_selection_count(function) Get_group_selection(function) Reset_group_selection(procedure) Set_group_selection(procedure) Unset_group_selection(procedure)

49. What are the built-ins that are used for setting the LOV properties at runtime?

get_lov_property set_lov_property

50. Name of the functions used to get/set canvas properties?

Get_view_property, Set_view_property

51. What is the difference between object embedding and linking in Oracle forms?

In Oracle forms, Embedded objects become part of the form module, and linked objects are references from a form module to a linked source file.

52. How do you reference a Parameter?

In Pl/SQL, You can reference and set the values of form parameters using bind variables syntax. Ex. PARAMETER name = ‘' or :block.item = PARAMETER Parameter name

53. What are the different styles of activation of ole Objects?

In place activation, External activation

54. How is link tool operation different bet. reports 2 & 2.5?

In Reports 2.0 the link tool has to be selected and then two fields to be linked are selected and the link is automatically created. In 2.5 the first field is selected and the link tool is then used to link the first field to the second field.

55. What is forms_DDL?

Issues dynamic Sql statements at run time, including server side pl/SQl and DDL

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56. What is a Text_io Package?

It allows you to read and write information to a file in the file system.

57. What use of command line parameter cmd file?

It is a command line argument that allows you to specify a file that contain a set of arguments for r20run.

58. What is synchronize?

It is a terminal screen with the internal state of the form. It updates the screen display to reflect the information that oracle forms has in its internal representation of the screen.

59. What is system.coordination_operation?

It represents the coordination causing event that occur on the master block in master-detail relation.

60. What is lexical reference?

How can it be created? - Lexical reference is place_holder for text that can be embedded in a SQL statements. A lexical reference can be created using & before the column or parameter name.

61. What is the advantage of the library?

Libraries provide a convenient means of storing client-side program units and sharing them among multiple applications. Once you create a library, you can attach it to any other form, menu, or library modules. When you can call library program units from triggers menu items commands and user named routine, you write in the modules to which you have attach the library. When a library attaches another library, program units in the first library can reference program units in the attached library. Library support dynamic loading-that is library program units are loaded into an application only when needed. This can significantly reduce the run-time memory requirements of applications.

62. What are the difference between lov & list item?

Lov is a property where as list item is an item. A list item can have only one column, lov can have one or more columns.

63. What is the diff. bet. setting up of parameters in reports 2.0 reports2.5?

LOVs can be attached to parameters in the reports 2.5 parameter form.

64. What are the different default triggers created when Master Deletes Property is set to Cascade?

Master Deletes Property Resulting Triggers: Cascading On-Clear-Details On-Populate-Details Pre-delete

65. What are the different default triggers created when Master Deletes Property is set to isolated?

Master Deletes Property Resulting Triggers: Isolated On-Clear-Details On-Populate-Details

66. What are the different default triggers created when Master Deletes Property is set to Non-isolated?

Master Deletes Property Resulting Triggers: Non-Isolated (the default) On-Check-Delete-Master On-Clear-Details On-Populate-Details

67. What are modal windows?

Modal windows are usually used as dialogs, and have restricted functionality compared to modeless windows. On some platforms for example operators cannot resize, scroll or iconify a modal window.

68. What are the different modals of windows?

Modeless windows Modal windows

69. Is it possible to link two groups inside a cross products after the cross products group has been created?

Not possible.

70. Can you pass data parameters to forms?

No we can not pass data parameters to forms

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71. Do user parameters appear in the data modal editor in 2.5?

No user parameters appear in the data modal editor in 2.5

72. Is it possible to set a filter condition in a cross product group in matrix reports?


73. If a break order is set on a column would it affect columns which are under the column?


74. Can a repeating frame be created without a data group as a base?

A repeating frame ca not be created without a data group as a base

75. Does a grouping done for objects in the layout editor affect the grouping done in the data model editor?


76. Is it possible to modify an external query in a report which contains it?

No it is possible to modify an external query in a report which contains it

77. What is an OLE?

Object Linking & Embedding provides you with the capability to integrate objects from many Windows applications into a single compound document creating integrated applications enables you to use the features form.

78. What are the different objects that you cannot copy or reference in object groups?

Objects of different modules Another object groups Individual block dependent items Program units.

79. What are the master-detail triggers?

On-Check_delete_master, On_clear_details, On_populate_details

80. What are the two repeating frame always associated with matrix object?

One down repeating frame below one across repeating frame.

81. If the maximum record retrieved property of the query is set to 10 then a summary value will be calculated?

Only for 10 records.

82. How many windows in a form can have console?

Only one window in a form can display the console, and you cannot change the console assignment at runtime

83. What are the three types of user exits available?

Oracle Precompiler exits, Oracle call interface, NonOracle user exits.

84. What are parameters?

Parameters provide a simple mechanism for defining and setting the values of inputs that are required by a form at startup. Form parameters are variables of type char, number, date that you define at design time.

85. With which function of summary item is the compute at options required?

percentage of total functions.

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86. Which of the above methods is the faster method?

performing the calculation in the query is faster.

87. What are the different display styles of list items?

Pop_list Text_list Combo box

88. what are difference between post database commit and post-form commit?

Post-form commit fires once during the post and commit transactions process, after the database commit occurs. The post-form-commit trigger fires after inserts, updates and deletes have been posted to the database but before the transactions have been finalized in the issuing the command. The post-database-commit trigger fires after oracle forms issues the commit to finalized transactions.

89. From which designation is it preferred to send the output to the printed?


90. What are the different types of Record Groups?

Query Record Groups NonQuery Record Groups State Record Groups

91. Which parameter can be used to set read level consistency across multiple queries?

Read only

92. What is the Maximum allowed length of Record group Column?

Record group column names cannot exceed 30 characters.

93. What is the basic data structure that is required for creating an LOV?

Record Group.

94. What is strip sources generate options?

Removes the source code from the library file and generates a library files that contains only pcode. The resulting file can be used for final deployment, but can not be subsequently edited in the designer.ex. f45gen module=old_lib.pll userid=scott/tiger strip_source YES output_file

95. What are the different file extensions that are created by oracle reports?

Rep file and Rdf file.

96. What is the main diff. bet. Reports 2.0 & Reports 2.5?

Report 2.5 is object oriented.

97. How do you call other Oracle Products from Oracle Forms?

Run_product is a built-in, Used to invoke one of the supported oracle tools products and specifies the name of the document or module to be run. If the called product is unavailable at the time of the call, Oracle Forms returns a message to the operator.

98. What are the built-ins that are used to Attach an LOV programmatically to an item?

set_item_property get_item_property (by setting the LOV_NAME property)

99. What is the difference between SHOW_EDITOR and EDIT_TEXTITEM?

Show editor is the generic built-in which accepts any editor name and takes some input string and returns modified output string. Whereas the edit_textitem built-in needs the input focus to be in the text item before the built-in is executed.

100. What are the built_ins used the display the LOV?

Show_lov List_values

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101. Explain about stacked canvas views?

Stacked canvas view is displayed in a window on top of, or “stacked” on the content canvas view assigned to that same window. Stacked canvas views obscure some part of the underlying content canvas view, and or often shown and hidden programmatically.

102. What are the types of calculated columns available?

Summary, Formula, Placeholder column.

103. Give two methods you could use to determine what DDL changes have been made.

You could use Logminer or Streams

104. Lot of users are accessing select sysdate from dual and they getting some millisecond differences. If we execute SELECT SYSDATE FROM EMP; what error will we get. Why?

No error message indication will be there.
It displays the current system date.

105. What is an index and How it is implemented in Oracle database?

INDEX is a one which provides quick access to a row.

106. What are the Coordination Properties in a Master-Detail relationship?

The coordination properties are Deferred Auto-Query These Properties determine when the population phase of block coordination should occur.

107. What are the default extensions of the files created by library module?

The default file extensions indicate the library module type and storage format .pll - pl/sql library module binary

108. What is the maximum no of chars the parameter can store?

The maximum no of chars the parameter can store is only valid for char parameters, which can be up to 64K. No parameters default to 23 Bytes and Date parameter default to 7 Bytes.

109. What is pop list?

The pop list style list item appears initially as a single field (similar to a text item field). When the operator selects the list icon, a list of available choices appears.

110. What is use of term?

The term file which key is correspond to which oracle report functions.

111. What is term?

The term is terminal definition file that describes the terminal form which you are using r20run.

112. What is a text list?

The text list style list item appears as a rectangular box which displays the fixed number of values. When the text list contains values that can not be displayed, a vertical scroll bar appears, allowing the operator to view and select values that are not displayed.

113. What are Most Common types of Complex master-detail relationships?

There are three most common types of complex master-detail relationships: master with dependent details master with independent details detail with two masters

114. What are the two phases of block coordination?

There are two phases of block coordination: the clear phase and the population phase. During, the clear phase, Oracle Forms navigates internally to the detail block and flushes the obsolete detail records. During the population phase, Oracle Forms issues a SELECT statement to repopulate the detail block with detail records associated with the new master record. These operations are accomplished through the execution of triggers.

115. What is a timer?

Timer is an “internal time clock” that you can programmatically create to perform an action each time the times.

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116. Can a property clause itself be based on a property clause?

Yes a property clause itself be based on a property clause

117. When a form is invoked with call_form, Does oracle forms issues a save point?

Yes oracle forms issues a save point when a form is invoked with call_form

118. Is it possible to disable the parameter from while running the report?

Yes it is possible to disable the parameter from while running the report

119. Is it possible to insert comments into sql statements return in the data model editor?

Yes it is possible to insert comments into sql statements return in the data model editor

120. How do you reference a parameter indirectly?

To indirectly reference a parameter use the NAME IN, COPY ‘built-ins to indirectly set and reference the parameters value' Example name_in ('capital parameter my param'), Copy ('SURESH','Parameter my_param')

121. What is the use of image_zoom built-in?

To manipulate images in image items.

122. What is the purpose of the product order option in the column property sheet?

To specify the order of individual group evaluation in a cross products.

123. Explain about horizontal, Vertical tool bar canvas views?

Tool bar canvas views are used to create tool bars for individual windows. Horizontal tool bars are display at the top of a window, just under its menu bar. Vertical Tool bars are displayed along the left side of a window

124. An open form can not be execute the call_form procedure if you chain of called forms has been initiated by another open form?


125. If two groups are not linked in the data model editor, What is the hierarchy between them?

Two group that is above are the left most rank higher than the group that is to right or below it.

126. What are the ways to monitor the performance of the report?

Use reports profile executable statement. Use SQL trace facility.

127. How do you create a new session while open a new form?

Using open_form built-in setting the session option Ex. Open_form ('Stocks ‘,active,session). when invoke the multiple forms with open form and call_form in the same application, state whether the following are true/False

128. What is the use of transactional triggers?

Using transactional triggers we can control or modify the default functionality of the oracle forms.

129. What are the vbx controls?

Vbx control provide a simple method of building and enhancing user interfaces. The controls can use to obtain user inputs and display program outputs.vbx control where originally develop as extensions for the ms visual basic environments and include such items as sliders, rides and knobs.

130. What are the two types of views available in the object navigator (specific to report 2.5)?

View by structure and view by type .

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131. Which of the two views should objects according to possession?

view by structure.

132. What are visual attributes?

Visual attributes are the font, color, pattern proprieties that you set for form and menu objects that appear in your application interface.

133. What is the diff. when confine mode is on and when it is off?

When confine mode is on, an object cannot be moved outside its parent in the layout.

134. Briefly, how do you install Oracle software on UNIX.

Basically, set up disks, kernel parameters, and run orainst.

135. Give two UNIX kernel parameters that effect an Oracle install


136. How would you change all occurrences of a value using VI?

Use :%s/<old>/<new>/g

137. What is difference between open_form and call_form?

When one form invokes another form by executing open_form the first form remains displayed, and operators can navigate between the forms as desired. when one form invokes another form by executing call_form, the called form is modal with respect to the calling form. That is, any windows that belong to the calling form are disabled, and operators cannot navigate to them until they first exit the called form.

138. When do you use data parameter type?

When the value of a data parameter being passed to a called product is always the name of the record group defined in the current form. Data parameters are used to pass data to products invoked with the run_product built-in subprogram.

139. What are the different windows events activated at runtimes?

When_window_activated When_window_closed When_window_deactivated When_window_resized Within this triggers, you can examine the built in system variable system. event_window to determine the name of the window for which the trigger fired.

140. What are the trigger associated with image items?

When-image-activated fires when the operators double clicks on an image itemwhen-image-pressed fires when an operator clicks or double clicks on an image item

141. What is trigger associated with the timer?


142. What are the SQL clauses supported in the link property sheet?

Where start with having.

143. If a parameter is used in a query without being previously defined, what diff. exist between report 2.0 and 2.5 when the query is applied?

While both reports 2.0 and 2.5 create the parameter, report 2.5 gives a message that a bind parameter has been created.

144. Can a formula column be obtained through a select statement?

Yes a formula column be obtained through a select statement

145. Can a formula column referred to columns in higher group?

Yes a formula column referred to columns in higher group

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146. How do you execute a UNIX command in the background?

Use the "&"
Use the "*amp"

147. How do you list the files in an UNIX directory while also showing hidden files?

ls -ltra

148. Is it possible to center an object horizontally in a repeating frame that has a variable horizontal size?

Yes it also possible to center an object horizontally in a repeating frame that has a variable horizontal size

149. Is it possible to split the print reviewer into more than one region?

Yes it possible to split the print reviewer into more than one region

150. Does a Before form trigger fire when the parameter form is suppressed?

Yes Before form trigger fire when the parameter form is suppressed

151. Is the After report trigger fired if the report execution fails?

Yes. The After report trigger fired if the report execution fails.

152. Can you have more than one content canvas view attached with a window?

Yes. Each window you create must have at least one content canvas view assigned to it. You can also create a window that has manipulated content canvas view. At run time only one of the content canvas views assign to a window is displayed at a time.

153. What are the Built-ins used for sending Parameters to forms?

You can pass parameter values to a form when an application executes the call_form, New_form, Open_form or Run_product.

154. Differentiate simple and complex, snapshots?

A simple snapshot is based on a query that does not contains GROUP BY clauses, CONNECT BY clauses, JOINs, sub-query or snapshot of operations. - A complex snapshots contain at least any one of the above.

155. How can we reduce the network traffic?

Replication of data in distributed environment.
- Using snapshots to replicate data.
- Using remote procedure calls.

156. What is a cluster key?

The related columns of the tables are called the cluster key. The cluster key is indexed using a cluster index and its value is stored only once for multiple tables in the cluster.

157. What are clusters?

Group of tables physically stored together because they share common columns and are often used together is called cluster.

158. What are the benefits of distributed options in databases?

Database on other servers can be updated and those transactions can be grouped together with others in a logical unit. Database uses a two phase commit.

159. What is snapshot log?

It is a table that maintains a record of modifications to the master table in a snapshot. It is stored in the same database as master table and is only available for simple snapshots. It should be created before creating snapshots.

160. Describe two phases of Two-phase commit?

Prepare phase - The global coordinator (initiating node) ask a participants to prepare (to promise to commit or rollback the transaction, even if there is a failure) Commit - Phase - If all participants respond to the coordinator that they are prepared, the coordinator asks all nodes to commit the transaction, if all participants cannot prepare, the coordinator asks all nodes to roll back the transaction.

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161. What are the various type of snapshots?

Simple and Complex.

162. What is database snapshots?

Snapshot is an object used to dynamically replicate data between distribute database at specified time intervals. In ver 7.0 they are read only.

163. What is the mechanism provided by ORACLE for table replication?

Snapshots and SNAPSHOT LOGs

164. What is a SNAPSHOT?

Snapshots are read-only copies of a master table located on a remote node which is periodically refreshed to reflect changes made to the master table.

165. What is a SQL * NET?

SQL *NET is ORACLEs mechanism for interfacing with the communication protocols used by the networks that facilitate distributed processing and distributed databases. It is used in Clint-Server and Server-Server communications.

166. How can you Enforce Referential Integrity in snapshots?

Time the references to occur when master tables are not in use. Perform the reference the manually immediately locking the master tables. We can join tables in snapshots by creating a complex snapshots that will based on the master tables.

167. What is Two-Phase Commit?

Two-phase commit is mechanism that guarantees a distributed transaction either commits on all involved nodes or rolls back on all involved nodes to maintain data consistency across the global distributed database. It has two phase, a Prepare Phase and a Commit Phase.

168. What dynamic data replication?

Updating or Inserting records in remote database through database triggers. It may fail if remote database is having any problem.

169. What is user Account in Oracle database?

An user account is not a physical structure in Database but it is having important relationship to the objects in the database and will be having certain privileges. 95. When will the data in the snapshot log be used? - We must be able to create a after row trigger on table (i.e., it should be not be already available) After giving table privileges. We cannot specify snapshot log name because oracle uses the name of the master table in the name of the database objects that support its snapshot log. The master table name should be less than or equal to 23 characters. (The table name created will be MLOGS_tablename, and trigger name will be TLOGS name).

170. How can we specify the Archived log file name format and destination?

By setting the following values in init.ora file. LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT = arch %S/s/T/tarc (%S - Log sequence number and is zero left padded, %s - Log sequence number not padded. %T - Thread number left-zero- padded and %t - Thread number not padded). The file name created is arch 0001 are if %S is used. LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST = path.

171. What are the minimum parameters should exist in the parameter file (init.ora)?

DB NAME - Must set to a text string of no more than 8 characters and it will be stored inside the datafiles, redo log files and control files and control file while database creation. DB_DOMAIN - It is string that specifies the network domain where the database is created. The global database name is identified by setting these parameters (DB_NAME & DB_DOMAIN) CONTORL FILES - List of control filenames of the database. If name is not mentioned then default name will be used. DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS - To determine the no of buffers in the buffer cache in SGA. PROCESSES - To determine number of operating system processes that can be connected to ORACLE concurrently. The value should be 5 (background process) and additional 1 for each user. ROLLBACK_SEGMENTS - List of rollback segments an ORACLE instance acquires at database startup. Also optionally LICENSE_MAX_SESSIONS,LICENSE_SESSION_WARNING and LICENSE_MAX_USERS.

172. What are the roles and user accounts created automatically with the database?

DBA - role Contains all database system privileges. SYS user account - The DBA role will be assigned to this account. All of the base tables and views for the database's dictionary are store in this schema and are manipulated only by ORACLE. SYSTEM user account - It has all the system privileges for the database and additional tables and views that display administrative information and internal tables and views used by oracle tools are created using this username.

173. What are the dictionary tables used to monitor a database spaces?


174. How will you enforce security using stored procedures?

Do not grant user access directly to tables within the application. Instead grant the ability to access the procedures that access the tables. When procedure executed it will execute the privilege of procedures owner. Users cannot access tables except via the procedure.

175. What is a database profile?

Each database user is assigned a Profile that specifies limitations on various system resources available to the user.

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176. What is a trace file and how is it created?

Each server and background process can write an associated trace file. When an internal error is detected by a process or user process, it dumps information about the error to its trace. This can be used for tuning the database.

177. What are the responsibilities of a Database Administrator?

* Installing and upgrading the Oracle Server and application tools.
* Allocating system storage and planning future storage requirements for the database system.
* Managing primary database structures (tablespaces)
* Managing primary objects (table, views, indexes)
* Enrolling users and maintaining system security.
* Ensuring compliance with Oracle license agreement
* Controlling and monitoring user access to the database.
* Monitoring and optimizing the performance of the database.
* Planning for backup and recovery of database information.
* Maintain archived data on tape
* Backing up and restoring the database.
* Contacting Oracle Corporation for technical support.

178. What is Audit Trial?

Results of audited operations are stored in a table in data dictionary.

179. What is database Auditing?

To aid in the investigation of suspicious db use. Statement Auditing is the auditing of specific SQL statements. Privilege Auditing is the auditing of the use of powerful system privileges. Object Auditing is the auditing of access to specific schema objects.

180. What are the use of database Roles?

REDUCED GRANTING OF PRIVILEGES - Rather than explicitly granting the same set of privileges to many users a database administrator can grant the privileges for a group of related users granted to a role and then grant only the role to each member of the group. DYNAMIC PRIVILEGE MANAGEMENT - When the privileges of a group must change, only the privileges of the role need to be modified. The security domains of all users granted the group's role automatically reflect the changes made to the role. SELECTIVE AVAILABILITY OF PRIVILEGES - The roles granted to a user can be selectively enable (available for use) or disabled (not available for use). This allows specific control of a user's privileges in any given situation. APPLICATION AWARENESS - A database application can be designed to automatically enable and disable selective roles when a user attempts to use the application.

181. How can we implement database roles?

Roles are the easiest way to grant and manage common privileges needed by different groups of database users. Creating roles and assigning provides to roles. Assign each role to group of users. This will simplify the job of assigning privileges to individual users.

182. What are database roles?

Roles are named groups of related privileges that are granted to users or other roles.

183. How can you enable automatic archiving?

Shut the database Backup the database Modify/Include LOG_ARCHIVE_START_TRUE in init.ora file. Start up the database.

184. What are the database administrators utilities available?

SQL * DBA - This allows DBA to monitor and control an ORACLE database. SQL * Loader - It loads data from standard operating system files (Flat files) into ORACLE database tables. Export (EXP) and Import (imp) utilities allow you to move existing data in ORACLE format to and from ORACLE database.

185. What is Statement Auditing?

Statement auditing is the auditing of the powerful system privileges without regard to specifically named objects

186. What are the different Levels of Auditing?

Statement Auditing, Privilege Auditing and Object Auditing.

187. What is Tablespace Quota?

The collective amount of disk space available to the objects in a schema on a particular tablespace.

188. What are the system resources that can be controlled through Profile?

The number of concurrent sessions the user can establish the CPU processing time available to the user's session the CPU processing time available to a single call to ORACLE made by a SQL statement the amount of logical I/O available to the user's session the amount of logical I/O available to a single call to ORACLE made by a SQL statement the allowed amount of idle time for the user's session the allowed amount of connect time for the user's session.

189. What is default tablespace?

The Tablespace to contain schema objects created without specifying a tablespace name.

190. What is the use of ANALYZE command?

To perform one of these function on an index, table, or cluster: - To collect statistics about object used by the optimizer and store them in the data dictionary. - To delete statistics about the object used by object from the data dictionary. - To validate the structure of the object.. - To identify migrated and chained rows off the table or cluster.

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191. What is a Database instance?

Explain A database instance (Server) is a set of memory structure and background processes that access a set of database files. The process can be shared by all users. The memory structure that are used to store most queried data from database. This helps up to improve database performance by decreasing the amount of I/O performed against data file.

192. What is an Index? How it is implemented in Oracle Database?

An index is a database structure used by the server to have direct access of a row in a table. An index is automatically created when a unique of primary key constraint clause is specified in create table command (Ver 7.0)

193. What is database clusters?

Group of tables physically stored together because they share common columns and are often used together is called Cluster.

194. What are the basic element of Base configuration of an oracle Database?

It consists of one or more data files. one or more control files. two or more redo log files. The Database contains multiple users/schemas one or more rollback segments one or more tablespaces Data dictionary tables User objects (table, indexes, views etc.,) The server that access the database consists of SGA (Database buffer, Dictionary Cache Buffers, Redo log buffers, Shared SQL pool) SMON (System MONito) PMON (Process MONitor) LGWR (LoG Write) DBWR (Data Base Write) ARCH (ARCHiver) CKPT (Check Point) RECO Dispatcher User Process with associated PGS

195. What is Distributed database?

A distributed database is a network of databases managed by multiple database servers that appears to a user as single logical database. The data of all databases in the distributed database can be simultaneously accessed and modified.

196. What is a SNAPSHOT LOG?

A snapshot log is a table in the master database that is associated with the master table. ORACLE uses a snapshot log to track the rows that have been updated in the master table. Snapshot logs are used in updating the snapshots based on the master table.

197. What are the options available to refresh snapshots?

COMPLETE - Tables are completely regenerated using the snapshots query and the master tables every time the snapshot referenced. FAST - If simple snapshot used then a snapshot log can be used to send the changes to the snapshot tables. FORCE - Default value. If possible it performs a FAST refresh; Otherwise it will perform a complete refresh.

198. What is a database schema?

The set of objects owned by user account is called the schema.

Schema is the complete design of the database or data objects.

199. What is the difference between the SQL*Loader and IMPORT utilities?

These two Oracle utilities are used for loading data into the database. The difference is that the import utility relies on the data being produced by another Oracle utility EXPORT while the SQL*Loader utility allows data to be loaded that has been produced by other utilities from different data sources just so long as it conforms to ASCII formatted or delimited files.

200. How can you enable a trace for a session?


201. How can you gather statistics on a table?

The ANALYZE command.

202. You have just compiled a PL/SQL package but got errors, how would you view the errors?


203. Explain what partitioning is and what its benefit is.

Partitioning is a method of taking large tables and indexes and splitting them into smaller, more manageable pieces.

204. How can you rebuild an index?

ALTER INDEX <index_name> REBUILD;.

205. How would you determine who has added a row to a table?

Turn on fine grain auditing for the table.

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206. What view would you use to determine free space in a tablespace?


207. What view would you use to look at the size of a data file?


208. How do you resize a data file?

ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE <datafile_name> RESIZE <new_size>;

209. How do you add a data file to a tablespace?


210. When creating a user, what permissions must you grant to allow them to connect to the database?

Grant the CONNECT to the user.

211. Name a tablespace automatically created when you create a database.

The SYSTEM tablespace.

212. What is the difference between a TEMPORARY tablespace and a PERMANENT tablespace?

A temporary tablespace is used for temporary objects such as sort structures while permanent tablespaces are used to store those objects meant to be used as the true objects of the database.

213. What does coalescing a tablespace do?

Coalescing is only valid for dictionary-managed tablespaces and de-fragments space by combining neighboring free extents into large single extents.

214. What are the different Parameter types?

Text ParametersData Parameters

215. How would you force a log switch?


216. Describe what redo logs are.

Redo logs are logical and physical structures that are designed to hold all the changes made to a database and are intended to aid in the recovery of a database.

217. What is the effect of setting the value “ALL_ROWS” for OPTIMIZER_GOAL parameter of the ALTER SESSION command?

What are the factors that affect OPTIMIZER in choosing an Optimization approach? - Answer The OPTIMIZER_MODE initialization parameter Statistics in the Data Dictionary the OPTIMIZER_GOAL parameter of the ALTER SESSION command hints in the statement.

218. What is difference between UNIQUE constraint and PRIMARY KEY constraint?

A column defined as UNIQUE can contain Nulls while a column defined as PRIMARY KEY can't contain Nulls. 47.What is Index Cluster? - A Cluster with an index on the Cluster Key 48.When does a Transaction end? - When it is committed or Rollbacked.

219. What does a Control file Contain?

A Control file records the physical structure of the database. It contains the following information. Database Name Names and locations of a database's files and redolog files. Time stamp of database creation.

220. Explain materialized views and how they are used.

Materialized views are objects that are reduced sets of information that have been summarized, grouped, or aggregated from base tables. They are typically used in data warehouse or decision support systems.

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221. Where in the Oracle directory tree structure are audit traces placed?

In unix $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/audit, in Windows the event viewer

222. Name three advisory statistics you can collect.

Buffer Cache Advice
Segment Level Statistics
Timed Statistics

223. Explain the use of table functions.

Table functions are designed to return a set of rows through PL/SQL logic but are intended to be used as a normal table or view in a SQL statement. They are also used to pipeline information in an ETL process.

224. Explain the difference between a FUNCTION, PROCEDURE and PACKAGE.

A function and procedure are the same in that they are intended to be a collection of PL/SQL code that carries a single task. While a procedure does not have to return any values to the calling application, a function will return a single value. A package on the other hand is a collection of functions and procedures that are grouped together based on their commonality to a business function or application.

225. What command would you use to encrypt a PL/SQL application?


226. Explain the use of setting GLOBAL_NAMES equal to TRUE.

Setting GLOBAL_NAMES dictates how you might connect to a database. This variable is either TRUE or FALSE and if it is set to TRUE it enforces database links to have the same name as the remote database to which they are linking.

227. How would you determine the time zone under which a database was operating?

select DBTIMEZONE from dual;

228. Explain the difference between $ORACLE_HOME and $ORACLE_BASE.

ORACLE_BASE is the root directory for oracle. ORACLE_HOME located beneath ORACLE_BASE is where the oracle products reside.

229. Explain an ORA-01555

You get this error when you get a snapshot too old within rollback. It can usually be solved by increasing the undo retention or increasing the size of rollbacks. You should also look at the logic involved in the application getting the error message.

230. How would you go about increasing the buffer cache hit ratio?

Use the buffer cache advisory over a given workload and then query the v$db_cache_advice table. If a change was necessary then I would use the alter system set db_cache_size command.

231. How would you go about generating an EXPLAIN plan?

Create a plan table with utlxplan.sql.
Use the explain plan set statement_id = 'tst1' into plan_table for a SQL statement
Look at the explain plan with utlxplp.sql or utlxpls.sql

232. What is a Synonym?

A synonym is an alias for a table, view, sequence or program unit.

233. Give the stages of instance startup to a usable state where normal users may access it.

STARTUP NOMOUNT - Instance startup
STARTUP MOUNT - The database is mounted
STARTUP OPEN - The database is opened

234. What is a Sequence?

A sequence generates a serial list of unique numbers for numerical columns of a database's tables.

235. Explain the difference between ARCHIVELOG mode and NOARCHIVELOG mode and the benefits and disadvantages to each.

ARCHIVELOG mode is a mode that you can put the database in for creating a backup of all transactions that have occurred in the database so that you can recover to any point in time. NOARCHIVELOG mode is basically the absence of ARCHIVELOG mode and has the disadvantage of not being able to recover to any point in time. NOARCHIVELOG mode does have the advantage of not having to write transactions to an archive log and thus increases the performance of the database slightly.

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236. A table is classified as a parent table and you want to drop and re-create it. How would you do this without affecting the children tables?

Disable the foreign key constraint to the parent, drop the table, re-create the table, enable the foreign key constraint.

237. What is a Segment?

A segment is a set of extents allocated for a certain logical structure.

238. What type of index should you use on a fact table?

A Bitmap index.

239. Give the two types of tables involved in producing a star schema and the type of data they hold.

Fact tables and dimension tables. A fact table contains measurements while dimension tables will contain data that will help describe the fact tables.

240. Give the reasoning behind using an index.

Faster access to data blocks in a table.

241. Compare and contrast TRUNCATE and DELETE for a table.

Both the truncate and delete command have the desired outcome of getting rid of all the rows in a table. The difference between the two is that the truncate command is a DDL operation and just moves the high water mark and produces a now rollback. The delete command, on the other hand, is a DML operation, which will produce a rollback and thus take longer to complete.

242. Where would you look for errors from the database engine?

In the alert log.

243. What are the type of Synonyms?

There are two types of Synonyms Private and Public

244. What are the Referential actions supported by FOREIGN KEY integrity constraint?

UPDATE and DELETE Restrict - A referential integrity rule that disallows the update or deletion of referenced data. DELETE Cascade - When a referenced row is deleted all associated dependent rows are deleted.

245. Do View contain Data?

Views do not contain or store data.

246. Shall we create procedures to fetch more than one record?

Yes. We can create procedures to fetch more than a row. By using CURSOR commands we could able to do that.
CURSOR mycur IS select id from mytable;
new_id mytable.id%type;
OPEN mycur;
FETCH mycur INTO new_id;
exit when mycur%NOTFOUND;
-do some manipulations-
CLOSE mycur;
END myprocedure;
In this example iam trying to fetch id from the table mytable. So it fetches the id from each record until EOF.

(EXIT when mycur%NOTFOUND-is used to check EOF.

247. Diffrence between a “where” clause and a “having” claus

The order of the clauses in a query syntax using a GROUP BY clause is as follows:
select …where..group by…having…order by…
Where filters, group by arranges into groups, having applies based on group by clause. Having is applied with group by clause.

In SQL Server, procedures and functions can return values. (In Oracle, procedures cannot directly return a value).
The major difference with a function is that it can be used in a value assignment. Such as:
-system function
Declare @mydate datetime
Set @mydate = getdate()

-user function (where the user has already coded the function)
Declare @My_area
Set @My_area = dbo.fn_getMy_area(15,20)

1.”where” is used to filter records returned by “Select”
2.”where” appears before group by clause
3.In “where” we cannot use aggregate functions like where count(*) >2 etc
4.”having” appears after group by clause
5.”having” is used to filter records returned by “Group by”<
6.In”Having” we can use aggregate functions like where count(*) >2 etc there are two more

248. What are the Large object types sported by Oracle?

1)bfile - Up to 4 gigabytes -> File locators that point to a read-only binary object outside of the database
2)blob - Up to 4 gigabytes. -> LOB locators that point to a large binary object within the database
3)clob - Up to 4 gigabytes. -> LOB locators that point to a large character object within the database
4)nclob - Up to 4 gigabytes. ->LOB locators that point to a large NLS character object within the database

249. Do you consider yourself a development DBA or a production DBA and why?

You take this as a trick question and explain it that way. Never in my database carrier have I distinguished between "development" and "production." Just ask your development staff or VP of engineering how much time and money is lost if development systems are down. Explain to the interviewer that both systems are equally important to the operation of the company and both should be considered as production systems because there are people relying on them and money is lost if either one of them is down. Ok you may be saying, and I know you are, that we lose more money if the production system is down. Ok, convey that to the interviewer and you won't get anyone to disagree with you unless your company sells software or there are million dollar deals on the table that are expecting the next release of your product or service.

250. What are the advantages of operating a database in ARCHIVELOG mode over operating it in NO ARCHIVELOG mode?

Complete database recovery from disk failure is possible only in ARCHIVELOG mode. Online database backup is possible only in ARCHIVELOG mode.

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251. What are the different modes of mounting a Database with the Parallel Server?

Exclusive Mode If the first instance that mounts a database does so in exclusive mode, only that Instance can mount the database. Parallel Mode If the first instance that mounts a database is started in parallel mode, other instances that are started in parallel mode can also mount the database.

252. What DBA activities did you to do today?

This is a loaded question and almost begs for you to answer it with "What DBA activities do you LIKE to do on a daily basis?." And that is how I would answer this question. Again, do not get caught up in the "typical" day-to-day operational issues of database administration. Sure, you can talk about the index you rebuilt, the monitoring of system and session waits that were occurring, or the space you added to a data file, these are all good and great and you should convey that you understand the day-to-day operational issues. What you should also throw into this answer are the meetings that you attend to provide direction in the database arena, the people that you meet and talk with daily to answer adhoc questions about database use, the modeling of business needs within the database, and the extra time you spend early in the morning or late at night to get the job done. Just because the question stipulates "today" do not take "today" to mean "today." Make sure you wrap up a few good days into "today" and talk about them. This question also begs you to ask the question of "What typical DBA activities are performed day to day within X Corporation?"

253. What is a DBA?

A DBA is a Database Administrator, and this is the most common job that you find a database specialist doing. There are Development DBAs and Production DBAs.
A Development DBA usually works closely with a team of developers and gets more involved in design decisions, giving advice on performance and writing good SQL.
That can be satisfying at a human level because you are part of a team and you share the satisfaction of the teams accomplishments.
A Production DBA (on the other hand) is responsible for maintaining Databases within an organization, so it is a very difficult and demanding job. He or she, often gets involved when all the design decisions have been made, and has simply to keep things up and running.
Therefore, of course, it is also a rewarding job, both financially and in terms of job satisfaction. But it is a more "lonely" job than being a Development DBA.