1. What are the advantages of soapy detergents over soapless?

when we put on dirty cloths in detergent then due to chemical bonding
made up michell. one part of michell called head and another part is called tail. head contain Na and tail contain oH . and when we dropped dirty cloth on water then it has to be clean

2. If this element X combines with another element Y whose electronic configuration is 2, 8, 7 what will be the formula of the compound thus formed? State how did you arrive at this formula?

The element Y is Cl having electronic configuration 2,8,7
so to complete outer orbit and become stable it requires 1
electron So if it accepts 1 electron from Hydrogen (1) or Na having
electronic configuration (2,8,1) then the formula becomes

This will take place only if X is element having 1
electron in its outer orbit

3. How will you jug that the give organic compound is pure or not?

There are so many analytical method to know the organic
compound is pure or not such as find out the purity by
tlc,hptlc,hplc and also gavimetric methods are also there
such as limit test and ash of the compound as so on.....

4. What is the formula of petrol?


5. Why all the concentration of chemical species are measured using water as solvent (for examole 1N NaOH means 40 g of NaOH in one litre of water)eventhough there are so many solvents available?

Water is a neutral solvent, doesn't react with NaOH or other
chemical species.
its density nearly about 1.0.

Some reagents may be prepare in so many solvents.

for example. 0.1N perchloric acid is prepared in glacial
actic acid in non aqueous titration.

Methanolic HCl(HCl in Methanol)or Hcl in Propanol etc

6. why in atomic mass electron is not include while proton and neutron include? although electron is a part of atom?

Electrons are moving around the orbit of the atom.According
to Heisenberg principle position and momentum(P) of a
moving particle cannot be determined simultaneously at one
instance. since mass is to be determined from the formula m
= P/v, where P is the momentum and v is the velocity of the
electron.even if we can able determine the velocity we
can't determine the momentum at that time. hence the mass
can't be determined.hence it is negleced from the atomic
mass calculation.

7. Why PH scale range is 14? why it is not less or not greater than 14? solution of HCl or hydrogen containing liquid has a PH. but if the solution is KMnO4 here not hydrogen power does it PH?

This is the scale to measure the concentration (activity) of H+ Ions in solution which is -log[H+] convenient for our usage

8. What is the valence of nitrogen?

Nitrogen has 5 valence electrons in an atom

9. In Einsteins mass energy relation e=mc2 for what is c used or why is light required for reactions. Because the reactions are with help of neutrons?

In This equation c is sed as a speed of light
In a chemical reactions most of the reaction are photolytic
reaction,which means bond breaks or formed with influence
of light.hence c is used in reaction

10. Acid value definition is number milligrams of KOH required to nuetralise the acid present in one gram oil & fats but why not use NaOH for nuetralisation?

NaOH can also be used but standard results are based on
calculation done using KOH as alkali

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11. What is the formula of diesel, petrol & CNG too?

The alkanes from pentane (C5H12) to octane (C8H18) are
refined into petrol, the ones from nonane (C9H20) to
hexadecane (C16H34) into diesel fuel and kerosene (primary
component of many types of jet fuel), and the ones from
hexadecane upwards into fuel oil and lubricating oil.

12. What is the difference between base & nucleophile?

A lewis base is a proton acceptor. these can be good
nucleophiles for a reaction if they are not too big and
bulky. if they are too big, they can't attack the
electrophile and you will probably get an E type rxn
instead of an SN type rxn. A nucleophile is any electron
rich molecule. This can be a lewis base or it can be
another species such as a carbanion

13. Which metal is found abundantly in the earths crust?


14. What is the molarity of a NaOH solution if 32.47ml. is required to titrate 0.6013g of potassium hydrogen phthalate?


15. What is kentchin? Is it real? As much info on it as possible?

hardest metal.
1 square metre of kentchin could with stand the heat of the

16. Who is the king of chemistry?


17. What is acidity of a base?

Number of OH- ions released by a base is the acidity of a base

18. Is urea addition affecting the COD (chemical oxygen demand) & BOD (Biological oxygen demand)level? why?

it used for the generating the microorganism

19. Which is the best conductor of electricity?

silver is best conductor of electricity.

20. pH is having unit?


21. When a glass rod is heated gradually and suddenly dipped in cold water, it cracks. What is the reason?? When a cool glass rod is suddenly heated, it cracks. Why?

When a glass rod is heated the molecules gains etnergy and
they will be in random motion. when it is suddenly dipped
in cold water, the glass molecules contact with water
gives its energy to the lower enrgy water molecule while
the molecules inside the glass with higher energy will
relese the energy randomly as a result it creates cracks
for more surface area, so that more energy can flow in
lower time.

Same thing happens when it cooled rod is heated.

22. However ozone is heavier than oxygen still ozone is up there in sky why?

It's not that it's "staying up there", it's that it never
has a chance to fall. Ozone is FORMED up there, and it
breaks apart again before it has a chance to fall.

Ozone is formed when UV radiation hits oxygen (O2),
splitting it apart. Oxygen atoms hate to be alone, so they
recombine with an O2 molecule to make O3, ozone. Before the
ozone has a chance to fall, IT gets hit with MORE uv
radiation, turning it back into oxygen. Ozone just keeps
getting made and destroyed before it has a chance to fall.

23. What is the process for separating the components of gunpowder?

First introduce water and then filter the
particulates out. The liquid would be mostly potassium
nitrate since there will be a finite amount of solubility
of the other 2 compounds. Next introduce carbon disulfide
and filter the carbon away from the soluble sulfur. They
would be cleaned up sufficiently enough i would think.