1. What is Sync. Channel?

A base station transmits a Sync-Channel that spreads with Walsh code 32.
The frame of synch channel is 80/3ms long with frame boundary is aligned to the pilot.
Sync channel transmits a single message continually, called Sync Channel Message.
The Sync Channel Message contains network information, including the PN offset that is used by the Base Station sector.
The length and content of the message is dependent on the P_REV.
The message transmission rate is 32 bits / frame.
The message is encoded to 128 symbols
The message yielding rate is 1200 bits / s.

2. Explain Pilot Channel?

A forward link channel which is a base to mobile that modulates only by the pilot PN. It spreads common codes to all signals transmitted from a given base station.
Several critical important functions are provided by the pilot channel for forward links in IS-95 systems
The pilot channel modulation facilitates the process of time synchronized replica generation at the receiver of the PN spreading sequences. These are utilized at the transmitter for modulating the synchronization, paging and traffic channels. These are transmitted from the same base station.

3. Do you know what is the importance of CDMA in today's cellular world?

The transition to digital radio through the process of defining standards is implementing about 90% in the cellular industry.
Smooth transition to digital standards is involved in CDMA technology.
Most often, it can be viewed as improved and replacement technology of TDMA
Moving towards 4G technology is compatible with CDMA technology .

4. Explain the difference between CDMA and GPRS and which of them is better and why?

The Differences:

CDMA is one of the types of mobile connections for making calls where as GPRS is a technology for internet connections through a mobile phone.
GPRS enables to surf the internet from a mobile phone. GPRS technology is used in other gadgets apart from mobile phones.
W-CDMA technology is faster than GPRS, since the user cares about the technology that is applied for air interface.
Average latency on GPRS is around 1.3 seconds, where as on CDMA is around 400 milli second
GPRS supports only User Datagram Protocol, where as CDMA supports both UDP and TCP
GPRS relies on Network Address Translation and a private IP address is assigned to it. On the other hand CDMA assigns a public IP address CDMA is better because:
E-mail is pretty light, until you enter MS-Office.
Pocket PC's support for office documents with similar functionality which can be had on Palm OS and Symbian
Upon availability of APIs, a software developer could write various applications, like voice transfer, data transfer to client's account, integrating billing amount etc.
Web services could be utilized .

5. Explain Softer handoff?

Softer handover is a significant soft handover in which the added and removed links belong to the same node
Macro diversity with maximum ratio combining could be performed in the same node
The movement of handoff, when a user can be served in another cell more efficiently (less power emission, less interference), is the most obvious cause for better performance.

6. Explain Soft handoff?

Soft handoff is a feature in which a cellular phone is simultaneously connected to two or more cellular phones during a single call
It is he overlapping of repeater coverage ones, which enables every cell phone set is always well within the range of a specific repeater.
More than one repeater can send and receive signals to transmit signals to and from mobiles.
All repeaters are used with the same frequency channel for each mobile phone set.
Practically no dead zones and as result, the connections seldom interrupted or dropped.

7. Do you know what is the difference between CDMA and GSM?

Data Transfer Speed:

CDMA is faster than GSM.
CDMA2000 downstream rate is 2 megabits / second, through EVDO, where GSM downstream rate is up to 384 kilobits / second, through EDGE technology

Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) cards:

SIM is tied to the network, rather than the actual phone. Phones with card-enabled can be used with any carrier of GSM
Proprietary handsets are linked to one carrier only and not card-enabled in CDMA


GSM carriers have wider coverage of more rural areas, where as CDMA may not cover rural areas compared to GSM carriers

International Roaming:

GSM has facility to offer more international roaming, as the number of connections in world market dominate GSM network.
CDMA phones do not have the capacity; however, there are more countries that use CDMA networks.

8. Please differentiate between CDMA and TDMA?


Power limited system
While people talking, random noise band playing occurs
Conversation need to be extracted from the background din
GP is high when people speak different languages, which is easier to distinguish individual speakers
It is difficult for distinguishing individuals, when GP is low.
The system performance will be degraded for every user when the number of users increases.
Fading would be reduced with wide frequency spectrum
Need to have separate multipath signals with different delays by “chip” unit.


Receiving or transmission is allowed for only one user in a given slot
All slots are assigned cyclically
The transmission is non-continuous
It is essential to use digital data and modulation
Data rate overhead is between 20% - 30%
Overhead tradeoffs are size of data payload and latency
Multiple users are shared with single carrier frequency
Handoff is made simpler by using non-continuous transmission
All slots are assigned on demand
Due to reduced inter user interference, the power control is less stringent

9. Please differentiate between CDMA and FDMA?


Same frequency is used by every user and simultaneous transmission occurs
Every narrowband signal is multiplied by wideband spreading signal, usually known as codeword
Every user has a separate pseudo-codeword, i.e., orthogonal to others
Only the desired codeword is detected by the receivers and others appear as noise
It is mandatory for the receivers to know about the transmitter's codeword


When the channel is not in use, it sits simply idle
Bandwidth of Channel is relatively narrow (30 KHz), known as narrowband system
Little or no equalization is needed for spreading symbol time
Analog links are suitable for FDMA
Framing or synchronization bits are not needed for continuous transmission
Tight filtering is needed to minimize interference
Combined with FDD for duplexing

10. Do you know High Speed Packet Access?

HSPA is a combination of 2 mobile telephony protocols - High Speed Downlink Packet Access and High Speed Uplink Packet Access
HSPA improves the performance of existing WCDMA protocols.
HSPA provide increased performance by utilizing schemes of modulation and refining the protocols, through which the base stations and handsets communicate
HSPA is used for better usage of the available bandwidth provided by WCDMA
HSPA supports data rates of up to 14 MBit / s in the downlink
HSPA supports data rates of up to 5.8 MBit / s in the uplink
HSPA reduces the latency and increases up to 5 times more system capacity during downlink and twice more system capacity during uplink
HSPA uses 16QAM for yielding higher bit rates
HSPA rollouts are achieved by implementing software upgrades to existing 3G networks. This gives HSPA a head start over WiMax.

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11. What is DECT?

DECT is one of the wireless technologies, originated in Europe
DECT was designed to interwork with various networks such as PSTN, ISDN, GSM etc.
The initial standard. of DECT focused on developing air interface which is a radio link between cordless telephone and the base stations
This standard plugged into the telephone socket and the standard protocols for handover between several base stations
All these are connected to the same office switchboard, typically a PABX
The first product of its kind was from Olivetti, was a wireless LAN type product, known as NET3..

12. CDMA2000?

CDMA2000 is a Multi-carrier code-division multiple access version of IMT-2000 standard
CDMA2000 is a 3G wireless technology.
World's first 3G commercial system was launched by SK Telecom of South Korea using CDMA2000 1X
CDMA 2000 supports mobile data communications at speeds from 144KBPS to 3MBPS
The versions of CDMA2000 have been developed by Qualcomm and Ericsson
There were 250,300,000 subscribes world for CDMA by March 2006.

13. Explain CDMA One?

CDMA one refers original ITU IS-95 CDMA wireless interface protocol. It is considered as a 2G mobile wireless technology
The version IS-95A protocol employs a 1.25 Mhz carrier and data speeds up to 14.4 Kbps
The version IS-95B support data speeds up to 115 kbps by employing 800 MHz / 1.9 GHz.

14. Do you know what is CDMA? Explain the technology?

CDMA stands for Code Division Multiple Access
CDMA is a wireless technology used in transmission of signal from places with high Security and noise reduction.
The principle of Spread Spectrum is used to work with CDMA.
Spread signal is below the noise level noise and has no effect on the signal.
CDMA does not frequency specific to each user. Instead, every channel uses the full available spectrum.
Individual conversations are encoded with a pseudo-random digital sequence.
CDMA always provides better capacity for voice and data communications
CDMA is a common platform for 3G technologies
Analog radio transmission technologies like Advanced Mobile Phone System were used in CDMA at the time of its inception
A unique code is received by all mobile network users and is allowed continuous network access instead of intermittent and timed access.

15. What is EV-DO/ EVDO?

EVDO stands for Evolution Data Optimized
EVDO is a 3G broadband technology used by Verizon, Spring, Alltel
It provides typical download speeds of 600 to 1400 KBPS
A personal broadband service for wide range of customers
It is always On
EVDO utilizes CDMA signals
Users can be connected remotely for using email, downloading large files, spreadsheets etc.
EVDO is relatively low cost with high capacity
Allows rich web browsing and application usage
Seamless roaming, internal internet connectivity without relying on other's connection, accessibility to the corporate Virtual Private Network by customers are some of the advantages over WiFi .

16. Explain EDGE?

EDGE is an acronym for Enhanced Data GSM Environment
An improved wireless technology over GSM
A 2nd generation cell phone technology
EDGE is used for wireless data transfer via mobile phone connection
Data transfer rates up to 4 times more than GSM networks
With the advent of Blackberry and iPhone, faster data transfer is sought
Using more sophisticated coding, usually without high end hardware, wireless carrier's base stations are supported for data transfer speeds up to 384 KBPS
EDGE is an alternative to replacing wireless technology, such as GPRS
EDGE will eventually be replaced by 3G technology such as WCDMA.