1. Explain types of Transparencies?

The types of transparencies the NOS middleware is expected to provide are:-

Location transparency
Namespace transparency
Logon transparency
Replication transparency
Local/Remote access transparency
Distributed time transparency
Failure transparency and
Administration transparency.

2. Explain a File server?

File servers are useful for sharing files across a network. With a file server, the client passes requests for file records over nerwork to file server.

3. Explain the two types of OLTP?

TP lite, based on stored procedures.
TP heavy, based on the TP monitors.

4. Explain two broad classes of middleware?

General middleware
Service-specific middleware.

5. Explain What are the services provided by the Operating System?

Base services - It is a part of the standard OS.

Extended services - These are add-on modular software components that are layered on top of base service.

6. Explain an Object server?

With an object server, the Client/Server application is written as a set of communicating objects. Client object communicate with server objects using an Object Request Broker (ORB). The client invokes a method on a remote object. The ORB locates an instance of that object server class, invokes the requested method and returns the results to the client object. Server objects must provide support for concurrency and sharing. The ORB brings it all together.

An object is define ba a distrinct set up attribute that represent a network resources. For example User1 ,user2, group1 group2 etc.

7. Explain General Middleware?

It includes the communication stacks, distributed directories, authentication services, network time, RPC, Queuing services along with the network OS extensions such as the distributed file and print services.

8. Explain characteristics of Client/Server?

Shared resources
Asymmentrical protocols
Transparency of location
Message based exchanges
Encapsulation of services

Client/Server computing is the ultimate "Open platform". It gives the freedom to mix-and-match components of almost any level. Clients and servers are loosely coupled systems that interact through a message-passing mechanism.

9. Explain Structured Query Langauge (SQL)?

SQL is a powerful set-oriented language which was developed by IBM research for the databases that adhere to the relational model. It consists of a short list of powerful, yet highly flexible, commands that can be used to manipulate information collected in tables. Through SQL, we can manipulate and control sets of records at a time.

10. What is Symmentric Multiprocessing (SMP)?

It treats all processors as equal. Any processor can do the work of any other processor. Applications are divided into threads that can run concurrently on any available processor. Any processor in the pool can run the OS kernel and execute user-written threads.

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11. What is Asymmetrical protocols?

There is a many-to-one relationship between clients and server. Clients always initiate the dialog by requesting a service. Servers are passively awaiting for requests from clients.

12. Explain Non-GUI clients, GUI Clients and OOUI Clients?

Non-GUI Client: These are applications, generate server requests with a minimal amount of human interaction.

GUI Clients: These are applicatoins, where occassional requests to the server result from a human interacting with a GUI
(Example: Windows 3.x, NT 3.5)

OOUI clients : These are applications, which are highly-iconic, object-oriented user interface that provides seamless access to information in very visual formats.
(Example: MAC OS, Windows 95, NT 4.0)

13. Explain ACID property?

ACID is a term coined by Andrew Reuter in 1983, which stands for Atomicity, Consistence, Isolation and Durability.

ACID property is the basic property for transaction processing.
A - atomicity
C - consistency
I - isolation
D - durability

14. Explain all the Extended services provided by the OS?

Ubiquitous communications
Network OS extension
Binary large objects (BLOBs)
Global directories and Network yellow pages
Authentication and Authorization services
System management
Network time
Database and transaction services
Internet services
Object- oriented services

15. Explain a Transaction server?

With a transaction server, the client invokes remote procedures that reside on the server with an SQL database engine. These remote procedures on the server execute a group of SQL statements. The network exchange consists of a single request/reply message. The SQL statements either all succeed or fail as a unit.

16. Explain What are the functions of the typical server program?

It waits for client-initiated requests.
Executes many requests at the same time.
Takes care of VIP clients first.
Initiates and runs background task activity.
Keeps running.
Grown bigger and faster.