1. Explain what is Transmission Gate-based D-Latch?

The Transmission-Gate input is connected to the D_LATCH data input (D), the control input to the Transmission-Gate is connected to the D_LATCH enable input (EN) and the Transmission-Gate output is the D_LATCH output (Q).

2. How to detect sequence of "1101" arriving serially from signal line?

Sequence detector : A sequence detector gives an output of 1 on detecting the given sequence else the output is zero.

Ex : if the given sequence to be detected is 111
and input stream is 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
the output should be 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1.

Soln:
One of the different possible ways to detect a sequence is using a Mealy type FSM.

Using the following table the State machine can be designed.

3. Which are the two ways of converting a two input NAND gate to an inverter?

Short the two inputs of the nand gate and give the same input to the common wire,the nand gate works as an inverter.
One way is shorting the two inputs of the NAND gate and passing the input.

truth table:

A B output
1 1 0
0 0 1

The second way is passing the input to only one input(say A) of the NAND gate.Since the other input(say B) is floating, it is always logic one.

truth table:
A B output
1 1 0
0 1 1

4. How to design a divide-by-3 sequential circuit with 50% duty circle?

take a counter with 3 f/f's that is to say with 6 states(2*3) now double the i/p clock frequency to the counter the o/p of the 3rd f/f is divide by 6 of the i/p with 50% duty cycle so effectively u got divide by 3 freq with 50% duty cycle.

41. What is equivalence checking?
42. What is the Moores law?
43. What is the difference between simulation and emulation?
44. What is the use of RTL?
45. State the differences between VHDL and Verilog?
46. What do you understand by synthesis?
47. Explain the bottom-up design process.
48. What are synchronous circuits?
49. How can distorted signals be identified with the use of SNR?
50. What are the various practices for improving SNR?

31. What are data flow diagrams?
32. What are compilers?
33. Explain the functioning of compilers.
34. What are microcontrollers?
35. Explain the functioning of microcontrollers.
36. What is assembly language?
37. What do you understand by interrupt latency?
38. Explain RTOS.
39. How does a binary counter works?
40. What are the numbers of bit combinations in a byte?

21. Give the truth table of a half-adder?
22. What are transmission gates?
23. What do you understand by DFT?
24. What are fault models?
25. Explain scan technologies
26. Explain BST?
27. What are the differences between BST and BIST?
28. State the differences between LFSR and MISR?
29. What is IDDQ?
30. What do you understand by the term recovery design?

11. What is the dissipation factor? How is it calculated?
12. Explain tolerance?
13. What is a potentiometer used for?
14. What are the various hardware design tools available?
15. What is a HDL?
16. How can a two input NAND gate be converted into an inverter?
17. Define set up time & hold time constraints?
18. Draw a circuit to divide the clock frequency by half.
19. Design a divide-by-3 sequential circuit with 50% duty circle.
20. What are adder circuits explain?

1. What are the various hardware design techniques?
2. What are passive components/
3. What are the various board design issues?
4. What are analog power supply systems?
5. What do you understand by overvoltage protection?
6. What is thermal management?
8. What is the purpose of prototyping?
9. Explain the term dielectric absorption?
10. What do you understand by capacitor parasitic?

10. What are the different Adder circuits you studied?

Adders are generally of five types:
The Ripple carry adder(RCA) consists of a building block named Half
blocks HAs and FAs are also the building blocks of all types of
The full adder has three input pins(input Ai,input Bi,carryin Ci) and
two output pins(Sum and Ci+1).Its equations are:
Sum=Ai^Bi^Ci
Ci+1=Ai.Bi+Bi.Ci+Ai.Ci