Artificial intelligence (AI) Questions and Answers
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All Candidate Keys excluding the Primary Key are known as Alternate Keys.
If no obvious key, either stand alone or compound is available, then the last resort is to simply create a key, by assigning a unique number to each record or occurrence. Then this is known as developing an artificial key.
If no single data element uniquely identifies occurrences within a construct, then combining multiple elements to create a unique identifier for the construct is known as creating a compound key.
When one of the data elements stored within a construct is utilized as the primary key, then it is called the natural key.
There are however, hundreds of schools all over the world with at least one or two active researchers doing interesting work in AI. What is most important in graduate school is finding an advisor who is doing something YOU are interested in. Read about what's going on in the field and then identify the the people in the field that are doing that research you find most interesting. If a professor and his students are publishing frequently, then that should be a place to consider.
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A system can't be truely intelligent without displaying properties of both inductive and deductive thought. This lends many to beleive that in the end, there will be some kind of synthesis of statistical and classical AI.
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LISP- For many years, AI was done as research in universities and laboratories, thus fast prototyping was favored over fast execution. This is one reason why AI has favored high-level langauges such as Lisp. This tradition means that current AI Lisp programmers can draw on many resources from the community. Features of the language that are good for AI programming include: garbage collection, dynamic typing, functions as data, uniform syntax, interactive environment, and extensibility. Read Paul Graham's essay, "Beating the Averages" for a discussion of some serious advantages:
PROLOG- This language wins 'cool idea' competition. It wasn't until the 70s that people began to realize that a set of logical statements plus a general theorem prover could make up a program. Prolog combines the high-level and traditional advantages of Lisp with a built-in unifier, which is particularly useful in AI. Prolog seems to be good for problems in which logic is intimately involved, or whose solutions have a succinct logical characterization. Its major drawback (IMHO)