1. How do you give functions private variables that retain their values between calls?

Create a scope surrounding that sub that contains lexicals.
Only lexical variables are truly private, and they will persist even when their block exits if something still cares about them. Thus:
{ my $i = 0; sub next_i { $i++ } sub last_i { --$i } }
creates two functions that share a private variable. The $i variable will not be deallocated when its block goes away because next_i and last_i need to be able to access it.

2. How many ways can we express string in Perl?

Many. For example 'this is a string' can be expressed in:
"this is a string"
qq/this is a string like double-quoted string/
qq^this is a string like double-quoted string^
q/this is a string/
q&this is a string&
q(this is a string)

3. How do I print the entire contents of an array with Perl?

To answer this question, we first need a sample array. Let's assume that you have an array that contains the name of baseball teams, like this:
@teams = ('cubs', 'reds', 'yankees', 'dodgers');
If you just want to print the array with the array members separated by blank spaces, you can just print the array like this:
@teams = ('cubs', 'reds', 'yankees', 'dodgers');
print "@teamsn";
But that's not usually the case. More often, you want each element printed on a separate line. To achieve this, you can use this code:
@teams = ('cubs', 'reds', 'yankees', 'dodgers');
foreach (@teams) {
print "$_n";

4. How do you match one letter in the current locale?

We don't have full POSIX regexps, so you can't get at the isalpha() <ctype.h> macro save indirectly. You ask for one byte which is neither a non-alphanumunder, nor an under, nor a numeric. That leaves just the alphas, which is what you want.

5. Assume that $ref refers to a scalar, an array, a hash or to some nested data structure. Explain the following statements:

$$ref; # returns a scalar
$$ref[0]; # returns the first element of that array
$ref- > [0]; # returns the first element of that array
@$ref; # returns the contents of that array, or number of elements, in scalar context
$&$ref; # returns the last index in that array
$ref- > [0][5]; # returns the sixth element in the first row
@{$ref- > {key}} # returns the contents of the array that is the value of the key "key"

6. What happens to objects lost in "unreachable" memory..... ?

What happens to objects lost in "unreachable" memory, such as the object returned by Ob->new() in `{ my $ap; $ap = [ Ob->new(), $ap ]; }' ?

Their destructors are called when that interpreter thread shuts down.
When the interpreter exits, it first does an exhaustive search looking for anything that it allocated. This allows Perl to be used in embedded and multithreaded applications safely, and furthermore guarantees correctness of object code.

7. When would local $_ in a function ruin your day?

When your caller was in the middle for a while(m//g) loop
The /g state on a global variable is not protected by running local on it. That'll teach you to stop using locals. Too bad $_ can't be the target of a my() -- yet.

8. How do I read command-line arguments with Perl?

With Perl, command-line arguments are stored in the array named @ARGV.
$ARGV[0] contains the first argument, $ARGV[1] contains the second argument, etc.
$#ARGV is the subscript of the last element of the @ARGV array, so the number of arguments on the command line is $#ARGV + 1.
Here's a simple program:
$numArgs = $#ARGV + 1;
print "thanks, you gave me $numArgs command-line arguments.n";
foreach $argnum (0 .. $#ARGV) {
print "$ARGV[$argnum]n";

9. How to concatenate strings with Perl?

Method #1 - using Perl's dot operator:
$name = 'checkbook';
$filename = "/tmp/" . $name . ".tmp";

Method #2 - using Perl's join function
$name = "checkbook";
$filename = join "", "/tmp/", $name, ".tmp";

Method #3 - usual way of concatenating strings
$filename = "/tmp/${name}.tmp";

10. What is the easiest way to download the contents of a URL with Perl?

Once you have the libwww-perl library, LWP.pm installed, the code is this:
use LWP::Simple;
$url = get 'http://www.websitename.com/';

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11. How do I replace every <TAB> character in a file with a comma?

perl -pi.bak -e 's/t/,/g' myfile.txt

12. How do I do < fill-in-the-blank > for each element in an array?

#!/usr/bin/perl -w
@homeRunHitters = ('McGwire', 'Sosa', 'Maris', 'Ruth');
foreach (@homeRunHitters) {
print "$_ hit a lot of home runs in one yearn";

13. If EXPR is an arbitrary expression, what is the difference between $Foo::{EXPR} and *{"Foo::".EXPR}?

The second is disallowed under `use strict "refs"'.
Dereferencing a string with *{"STR"} is disallowed under the refs stricture, although *{STR} would not be. This is similar in spirit to the way ${"STR"} is always the symbol table variable, while ${STR} may be the lexical variable. If it's not a bareword, you're playing with the symbol table in a particular dynamic fashion.

14. What does length(%HASH) produce if you have thirty-seven random keys in a newly created hash?

length() is a built-in prototyped as sub length($), and a scalar prototype silently changes aggregates into radically different forms. The scalar sense of a hash is false (0) if it's empty, otherwise it's a string representing the fullness of the buckets, like "18/32" or "39/64". The length of that string is likely to be 5. Likewise, `length(@a)' would be 2 if there were 37 elements in @a.

15. How to dereference a reference?

There are a number of ways to dereference a reference.
Using two dollar signs to dereference a scalar.
$original = $$strref;
Using @ sign to dereference an array.
@list = @$arrayref;
Similar for hashes.

16. Does Perl have reference type?

Yes. Perl can make a scalar or hash type reference by using backslash operator.
For example
$str = "here we go"; # a scalar variable
$strref = $str; # a reference to a scalar

@array = (1..10); # an array
$arrayref = @array; # a reference to an array
Note that the reference itself is a scalar.

17. What is the difference between /^Foo/s and /^Foo/?

The second would match Foo other than at the start of the record if $* were set.
The deprecated $* flag does double duty, filling the roles of both /s and /m. By using /s, you suppress any settings of that spooky variable, and force your carets and dollars to match only at the ends of the string and not at ends of line as well -- just as they would if $* weren't set at all.

18. What value is returned by a lone return; statement?

The undefined value in scalar context, and the empty list value () in list context.
This way functions that wish to return failure can just use a simple return without worrying about the context in which they were called.

19. How do you find the length of an array?


20. How to read file into hash array ?

open(IN, "<name_file")
or die "Couldn't open file for processing: $!";
while (<IN>) {
$hash_table{$_} = 0;
close IN;

print "$_ = $hash_table{$_}n" foreach keys %hash_table;

21. How do I sort a hash by the hash value?

Here's a program that prints the contents
of the grades hash, sorted numerically by the hash value:

#!/usr/bin/perl -w

# Help sort a hash by the hash 'value', not the 'key'.
to highest).
sub hashValueAscendingNum {
$grades{$a} <=> $grades{$b};

# Help sort a hash by the hash 'value', not the 'key'.
# Values are returned in descending numeric order
# (highest to lowest).
sub hashValueDescendingNum {
$grades{$b} <=> $grades{$a};

%grades = (
student1 => 90,
student2 => 75,
student3 => 96,
student4 => 55,
student5 => 76,

foreach $key (sort hashValueAscendingNum (keys(%grades))) {
print "tt$grades{$key} tt $keyn";

foreach $key (sort hashValueDescendingNum (keys(%grades))) {
print "tt$grades{$key} tt $keyn";

22. What does new $cur->{LINK} do? (Assume the current package has no new() function of its own.)

The indirect object syntax only has a single token lookahead. That means if new() is a method, it only grabs the very next token, not the entire following expression.
This is why `new $obj[23] arg' does't work, as well as why `print $fh[23] "stuffn"' does't work. Mixing notations between the OO and IO notations is perilous. If you always use arrow syntax for method calls, and nothing else, you'll not be surprised.

23. What does read() return at end of file?

A defined (but false) 0 value is the proper indication of the end of file for read() and sysread().

24. Why does Perl not have overloaded functions?

Because you can inspect the argument count, return context, and object types all by yourself.
In Perl, the number of arguments is trivially available to a function via the scalar sense of @_, the return context via wantarray(), and the types of the arguments via ref() if they're references and simple pattern matching like /^d+$/ otherwise. In languages like C++ where you can't do this, you simply must resort to overloading of functions.

25. What does $result = f() .. g() really return?

False so long as f() returns false, after which it returns true until g() returns true, and then starts the cycle again.
This is scalar not list context, so we have the bistable flip-flop range operator famous in parsing of mail messages, as in `$in_body = /^$/ .. eof()'. Except for the first time f() returns true, g() is entirely ignored, and f() will be ignored while g() later when g() is evaluated. Double dot is the inclusive range operator, f() and g() will both be evaluated on the same record. If you don't want that to happen, the exclusive range operator, triple dots, can be used instead. For extra credit, describe this:
$bingo = ( a() .. b() ) ... ( c() .. d() );

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26. Why is it hard to call this function: sub y { "because" }

Because y is a kind of quoting operator.
The y/// operator is the sed-savvy synonym for tr///. That means y(3) would be like tr(), which would be looking for a second string, as in tr/a-z/A-Z/, tr(a-z)(A-Z), or tr[a-z][A-Z].

27. How to read from a pipeline with Perl

Example 1:

To run the date command from a Perl program, and read the output
of the command, all you need are a few lines of code like this:

open(DATE, "date|");
$theDate = <DATE>;

The open() function runs the external date command, then opens
a file handle DATE to the output of the date command.

Next, the output of the date command is read into
the variable $theDate through the file handle DATE.

Example 2:

The following code runs the "ps -f" command, and reads the output:

open(PS_F, "ps -f|");
while (<PS_F>) {
($uid,$pid,$ppid,$restOfLine) = split;
# do whatever I want with the variables here ...

28. How do I send e-mail from a Perl/CGI program on a Unix system?

Sending e-mail from a Perl/CGI program on a Unix computer system is usually pretty simple. Most Perl programs directly invoke the Unix sendmail program. We'll go through a quick example here.
Assuming that you've already have e-mail information you need, such as the send-to address and subject, you can use these next steps to generate and send the e-mail message:
# the rest of your program is up here ...
open(MAIL, "|/usr/lib/sendmail -t");
print MAIL "To: $sendToAddressn";
print MAIL "From: $myEmailAddressn";
print MAIL "Subject: $subjectn";
print MAIL "This is the message body.n";
print MAIL "Put your message here in the body.n";
close (MAIL);

29. How do you print out the next line from a filehandle with all its bytes reversed?

print scalar reverse scalar <FH>
Surprisingly enough, you have to put both the reverse and the <FH> into scalar context separately for this to work.

30. How do I sort a hash by the hash key?

Suppose we have a class of five students.
Their names are kim, al, rocky, chrisy, and jane.

Here's a test program that prints the contents
of the grades hash, sorted by student name:

#!/usr/bin/perl -w

%grades = (
kim => 96,
al => 63,
rocky => 87,
chrisy => 96,
jane => 79,

foreach $key (sort (keys(%grades))) {
print "tt$key tt$grades{$key}n";

The output of this program looks like this:

al 63
chrisy 96
jane 79
kim 96
rocky 87


31. How do I do < fill-in-the-blank > for each element in a hash?

Here's a simple technique to process each element in a hash:

#!/usr/bin/perl -w

%days = (
'Sun' =>'Sunday',
'Mon' => 'Monday',
'Tue' => 'Tuesday',
'Wed' => 'Wednesday',
'Thu' => 'Thursday',
'Fri' => 'Friday',
'Sat' => 'Saturday' );

foreach $key (sort keys %days) {
print "The long name for $key is $days{$key}.n";

32. What does Perl do if you try to exploit the execve(2) race involving setuid scripts?

Sends mail to root and exits.
It has been said that all programs advance to the point of being able to automatically read mail. While not quite at that point (well, without having a module loaded), Perl does at least automatically send it.

33. Why are not Perls patterns regular expressions?

Because Perl patterns have backreferences.
A regular expression by definition must be able to determine the next state in the finite automaton without requiring any extra memory to keep around previous state. A pattern /([ab]+)c1/ requires the state machine to remember old states, and thus disqualifies such patterns as being regular expressions in the classic sense of the term.

34. What is the output of the following Perl program?
1 $p1 = "prog1.java";
2 $p1 =~ s/(.*).java/$1.cpp/;
3 print "$p1n";

What is the output of the following Perl program?
1 $p1 = "prog1.java";
2 $p1 =~ s/(.*).java/$1.cpp/;
3 print "$p1n";


35. I want users send data by formmail but when they send nothing or call it from web site they will see error. codes in PHP like this: if (isset($HTTP_POST_VARS)){ .......... } else{ echo ("error lalalalal") } How it will look in perl?

In php it will be like
if (isset($HTTP_POST_VARS)){
In perl, tried this.

36. Why should I use the -w argument with my Perl programs?

Many Perl developers use the -w option of the interpreter, especially during the development stages of an application. This warning option turns on many warning messages that can help you understand and debug your applications.
To use this option on Unix systems, just include it on the first line of the program, like this:
#!/usr/bin/perl -w
If you develop Perl apps on a DOS/Windows computer, and you're creating a program named myApp.pl, you can turn on the warning messages when you run your program like this:
perl -w myApp.pl

37. What are scalar data and scalar variables?

Perl has a flexible concept of data types. Scalar means a single thing, like a number or string. So the Java concept of int, float, double and string equals to Perl's scalar in concept and the numbers and strings are exchangeable. Scalar variable is a Perl variable that is used to store scalar data. It uses a dollar sign $ and followed by one or more alphanumeric characters or underscores. It is case sensitive.

38. How to turn on Perl warnings? Why is that important?

Perl is very forgiving of strange and sometimes wrong code, which can mean hours spent searching for bugs and weird results. Turning on warnings helps uncover common mistakes and strange places and save a lot of debugging time in the long run. There are various ways of turning on Perl warnings:

* For Perl one-liner, use -w option on the command line.
* On Unix or Windows, use the -w option in the shebang line (The first # line in the script). Note: Windows Perl interpreter may not require it.
* For other systems, choose compiler warnings, or check compiler documentation.

39. What happens when you return a reference to a private variable?

Perl keeps track of your variables, whether dynamic or otherwise, and doesn't free things before you're done using them.

40. What is Perl one-liner?

There are two ways a Perl script can be run:
--from a command line, called one-liner, that means you type and execute immediately on the command line. You'll need the -e option to start like "C: %gt perl -e "print "Hello";". One-liner doesn't mean one Perl statement. One-liner may contain many statements in one line.
--from a script file, called Perl program.

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41. How do I generate a list of all .html files in a directory?

Here's a snippet of code that just prints a listing of every file in the current directory that ends with the extension .html:
#!/usr/bin/perl -w
opendir(DIR, ".");
@files = grep(/.html$/,readdir(DIR));
foreach $file (@files) {
print "$filen";

42. How do I do fill_in_the_blank for each file in a directory?

Here's code that just prints a listing of every file in the current directory:
#!/usr/bin/perl -w
opendir(DIR, ".");
@files = readdir(DIR);
foreach $file (@files) {
print "$filen";

43. How to open and read data files with Perl

Data files are opened in Perl using the open() function. When you open a data file, all you have to do is specify (a) a file handle and (b) the name of the file you want to read from.
As an example, suppose you need to read some data from a file named "checkbook.txt". Here's a simple open statement that opens the checkbook file for read access: open (CHECKBOOK, "checkbook.txt"); In this example, the name "CHECKBOOK" is the file handle that you'll use later when reading from the checkbook.txt data file. Any time you want to read data from the checkbook file, just use the file handle named "CHECKBOOK".
Now that we've opened the checkbook file, we'd like to be able to read what's in it. Here's how to read one line of data from the checkbook file:
$record = < CHECKBOOK > ;
After this statement is executed, the variable $record contains the contents of the first line of the checkbook file. The "<>" symbol is called the line reading operator.
To print every record of information from the checkbook file

open (CHECKBOOK, "checkbook.txt") || die "couldn't open the file!";
while ($record = < CHECKBOOK >) {
print $record;

44. Which of these is a difference between C++ and Perl?

Perl can have objects whose data cannot be accessed outside its class, but C++ cannot.

Perl can use closures with unreachable private data as objects, and C++ doesn't support closures. Furthermore, C++ does support pointer arithmetic via `int *ip = (int*)&object', allowing you do look all over the object. Perl doesn't have pointer arithmetic. It also doesn't allow `#define private public' to change access rights to foreign objects. On the other hand, once you start poking around in /dev/mem, no one is safe.

45. How do I set environment variables in Perl programs?

you can just do something like this:
$ENV{'PATH'} = '...';
As you may remember, "%ENV" is a special hash in Perl that contains the value of all your environment variables.
Because %ENV is a hash, you can set environment variables just as you'd set the value of any Perl hash variable. Here's how you can set your PATH variable to make sure the following four directories are in your path::

$ENV{'PATH'} = '/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin:/home/yourname/bin';

46. Why do you use Perl?

* Perl is a powerful free interpreter.
* Perl is portable, flexible and easy to learn.