Instrumentation Questions and Answers
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Positioner senses the valve opening through a position feedback link connected to valve stem which is its input signal. I/P converter output is its setpoint input. The difference between these two is the error signal based on which the positioner positions the valve to correct position to reduce error to zero. Hence positioner is nothing but a pneumatic feedback controller. Controlled external supply air to positioner provides power to positioner to position a valve. Also positioner is used in a valve when valve operating signal range is different from I/P converter output range.
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, since the rotor speed is directly proportional to the flow rate. The output is usually in the form of electric pulses from the magnetic pick up with a frequency proportional to the flow rate.
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7 :: Do you know How is automatic reference junction compensation carried out in temperature recorders?In automatic reference junction compensation, variable nickel resistor is used. As the temperature changes, so does its resistance. This reference junction compensator is located, so that it will be at the temperature of the reference junction. The reference junction is at the poset where the dissimilar wire of the thermocouple is rejoined. This joint is invariably at the terminal strip of the instrument.
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1. Normally Open
2. Normally closed
Use: It is used for safety purpose in different electric work
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If we assume that the output of a primary transmitter is A. and the output of the secondary transmitter is B, and that the multiplication factor of the ratio relay is K, then for equilibrium conditions which means set valve is equal to measured valve, we find the following relation:
KA-B=0 or B/A = K where ‘K’ is the ratio setting off the relay.
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2. Emitter -ve of meter and base +ve output =High resistance
3. Collector +ve and base -ve output =Low
4. Collector -ve and base +ve output =Low
Emitter: Collector = High resistance
PNP: Opposite Results
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