1: mkdir /kaka
2: open vim /etc/fstab and mount it permently.
3: mount -t vfat /dev/hda1 /kaka
4: /dev/hda1...... drive name.
yes we can but why to do that fedora is made up of red hat
so there is no such difference between them
Once system powered on, first thing will be POST check i.e
power on self test.
Then BIOS loads the MBR from the disk into RAM. Then, the
BIOS executes the MBR code. now boot loader list the number
of OS installed in to the system. select the OS wants to be
boot once OS selected initial RAM disk (temporary root file
system) are loaded into memory. When the images are loaded,
the boot loader passes control to the kernel image and the
kernel is decompressed and initialized.At this stage, the
boot loader checks the system hardware, enumerates the
attached hardware devices, mounts the root device, and then
loads the necessary kernel modules. When complete, the first
user-space program (init /sbin/init) starts, which will
looks file /etc/inittab to find the which runlevel kernel
will be boot then it will be check /etc/rc?.d (? means
runlevel got from inittab file)and check every script which
starts with name S will start in to that level once
completed, initrd(temporary root file system) will be
unmounted and mount the physical filesystem and loads the
main kernel then login prompt will be available.
We can make free space in hard disk and install new OS in
that free space.
Another way can be by installing Vm Manager an then
installing new OS on it.
7 types of files
l symbolic link
c character special file (hardware files)
b block special file (files to communicate with hardware )
p named pipe (to pass data between process )
s socket ( mechanism for inter-process communication
rpm is packagemanager while yum is a frontend,rpm can be
installed with the help of yum
RPM Package Manager” (formerly “Red Hat Package Manager”),
and YUM, “Yellow dog Updater,
Package Management System Installer
Typically part of the operating system. Each product comes
bundled with its own installer.
Uses a single installation database. Performs its own
installation, sometimes recording information about that
installation in a registry.
Can verify and manage all packages on the system. Only works
with its bundled product.
Single package management system vendor. Multiple installer
Single package format. Multiple installation formats.
The difference between Samba and NFS is primarily that Samba
uses the SMB (aka Lanmanager) protocol which is considered
"standard" for PCs (Windows and OS/2 both have built in
support for it, a free client is also available for DOS, I'm
not sure about MacOS), whereas NFS uses its own protocol
(usually just called "NFS") which is not commonly available
for PCs (NFS clients do exist for operating systems other
than UNIX/Linux, but they're
usually neither free or easy to setup).
Samba's SMB protocol allows the server machine to handle
authentication, so it can decide what files the client has
access to based on the particular machine and user
connecting. NFS by default trusts all client machines
completely (it's really not intended to share files to
unsecured workstations) and lets the client machines handle
authentication all on their own (once an NFS server has been
told to accept connections from a client machine the client
does not require any further server-side authentication, and
can do anything it wants with the filesystem NFS gives it
SMB does not (directly) support UNIX style file permissions,
so it is probably a bad idea to routinely use it to map
filesystems between machines which expect this information
to be present and mutable, NFS of course supports all
standard UNIX file information (this also means that SMB is
fine for accessing a UNIX filesystem from a Windows machine,
but not so hot the other way around).
Network File System (also known as NFS) is a protocol
developed by Sun Microsystems. It allows a user on a
computer to access files that are sent across a network -
similar to the way one accesses local storage. It is most
common in systems with a similar composition to the UNIX system
Samba is a re-implementation of SMB/CIFS networking protocol
(meaning a re-imaging of Server Message Block - or Common
Internet File System). As with the NFS, Samba runs most
naturally on a system with qualities not unlike those of the
UNIX systems. It comes standard with almost every
distribution of Linux, and is used as a basic system service
on all other UNIX-based systems.
a. NFS is a protocol that allows a user to access files over
a network; Samba is essentially a re-imaging of the Common
Internet File System.
b. NFS has four versions, the newest of which includes a
stateful protocol; Samba has multiple versions, the latest
of which allows file and print sharing between multiple
ifconfig -a|grep <ni card no>