There are many different techniques. One is with my finger, I go from dark to light and blend it out. There is also a shading pencil and it is just paper very tightly packed together into a pencil and it works very well on shading and again, I go from light to dark. Shading depends on where your lighting is like in reality, if the sun is in the top left corner, your darkest parts will be on the other side of the paper, so to the right and it should slowly fade as you move towards the left.
Aesthetics (or esthetics) is a term derived from the Greek word aisthesis, meaning perception which is the branch of philosophy devoted to the study of art and beauty.
Avant-garde art means highly modernistic contemporary art. Derived from the French word meaning "vanguard", the term originally expressed the notion that innovation by progressive artists was beneficial for mainstream art (which evolves more slowly).
Although there is no universal definition of the term contemporary art, most art historians and critics use it to describe works produced after the mid-to-late 1960s, although some disagreement persists as to the exact cut-off date.
There is no exact meaning or definition of the term modern art. Traditionally, it denotes the period between approximately 1860 and the mid-to-late 1960s, during which artists rejected past renaissance-based traditions, in favor of new forms of artistic expression.
Lightroom is a photographers program. Photoshop is actually a program for illustrators, graphic artists and photo retouchers. Lightroom has all the tools and features a photographer needs.
Lighting and sparks produced by piezoelectric effect (like those used in butane lighters and some gas stove-tops). Really for this kind of information, you could have used your favorite search engine to find many sites that discuss this phenomenon.
Concept art or character sketches as well as first drafts. I have also heard the term charting (but i don't think this is common use).
Creativity and skill are two distinct characteristics. One may be quite skilled at using a camera and lighting. Yet the product might be uninspiring. Creativity involves producing a photo in such a way that nobody has quite done. These days, it can also involve fine art post production manipulations. A skill can generally be taught to any competent individual. Creativity is at least partly inborn.
A much cheaper alternative to canvas is plywood. Just get any old piece of plywood from a timber yard. Size it with wall paper glue and away you go. Do not worry about the brown color, that will go once you paint over it. Plywood/Board/Hardboard has several advantages over canvas.