★ The right to liberty and freedom
★ The right to freedom of speech
★ The right to life
★ The right to the pursuit of happiness
★ The right to be free from torture
★ The right to be free from slavery
★ The right to freedom of thought
★ The right to live your life free of discrimination
★ The right to freely exercise your religion and practice your religious beliefs without the fear of being persecuted for your beliefs
★ The right to be free from prejudice based on race, nationality, color, age or sex
★ The right to a fair trial and due process of the law
★ The right to be free from cruel and unusual punishments
Strengths of the European Union:
★ Reducing social conflicts.
★ Inclusion of the charter of Fundamental Rights.
★ Looking after the promotion of a high level of employment, the guarantee of adequate social protection, fight against social exclusion, and a high level of education, training and protection of human health.
★ Fighting for sexual discrimination, even discrimination's based on racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age, etc.
★ Protecting the general economic interest.
★ Promoting general equality.
★ Contribution to the Union's objectives by Member States and the European System of Central Banks on sections of Economic Policy, Monetary Policy and Employment Policy.
★ Laws related to civil society are the legal base for the institutions.
Major weaknesses of the European Union are:
★ Not accepting the state of poverty.
★ Ignorance of the chapter on social inclusion.
★ The additions to the 'General Provisions governing the interpretation and application of the charter of Fundamental Rights' make it difficult for people to access rights.
★ Qualified Majority Voting is not included in social inclusion and anti-discrimination policies.
★ Neo-liberal ideological and economic tides are resisted through the services of general economical interest. Also, the provisions related to free movement of goods and services are counter balanced.
★ Establishment of minimum requirements by framework laws to fight against social exclusion.
★ Several sections on Economic Policy, Monetary Policy and Employment Policy remain untouched from the previous treaties. So it is unclear how growth will take place in any circumstance.
★ The right to individual assessment for the need of asylum is introduced through the Protocol on Asylum.
International politics plays an important role in civil wars as:
★ They provide new insights to civil war, presenting that civil wars have cross- border features and that need to be acquired if we are to understand them.
★ It applies new theories to the study of civil war.
★ It shows how causal mechanisms work in action, emphasizing the special methods needed to measure them.
The actors involved in international relations are the states and the non-state actors.
States are the main actors in international affairs, whereas non-state actors focus more and more on the analysis. The most influential non-state actors are international business firms, often called transnational corporations (TNCs).
This is a state level theory that claims that all states seek power. States try to increase their power through decreasing the power of their enemies. They see other states as more powerful.
This is a system level theory that is an outcome of classical realism. It contradicts what classical realism says. However, it sees the cause of all the power struggles and rivalries not as a function of the nature of states but as a function of the nature of the international system. If some other state is more powerful than your state, you have no way to protect yourself but to defend yourself or attack your rival first.
It is a state level theory which promotes cooperation more in the world, not more of rivalry. States do not just compete or worry about power. They know that cooperation is a better strategy than conflict.
These examine the role of psychological processes such as perceptions, misconceptions, belief systems. It can be at the state, organization, or individual level of analysis, depending on the area of research.