SMTP - Short for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, a protocol for sending e-mail messages between servers.
Telnet is the main Internet protocol for creating a connection to a remote server.
The DNS translates Internet domain and host names to IP addresses. DNS automatically converts the names we type in our Web browser address bar to the IP addresses of Web servers hosting those sites. DNS implements a distributed database to store this name and address information for all public hosts on the Internet.
The application layer is located at the top of the TCP/IP protocol layers. This one contains the network applications which make it possible to communicate using the lower layers. The software in this layer therefore communicates using one of the two protocols of the layer below (the transport layer), i.e. TCP or UDP. In computer networking, an application layer firewall is a firewall operating at the application layer of a protocol stack. Generally it is a host using various forms of proxy servers to proxy traffic instead of routing it. As it works on the application layer, it may inspect the contents of the traffic, blocking what the firewall administrator views as inappropriate content, such as certain websites, viruses, and attempts to exploit known logical flaws in client software, and so forth. An application layer firewall does not route traffic on the network layer. All traffic stops at the firewall which may initiate its own connections if the traffic satisfies the rules.