A Domain Name system is used to convert the names of the website on the internet to IP addresses. The domain names for each IP addresses are stored in a database that is distributed across different servers. A domain name space consists of a tree of domain names. The tree has zones. Zones consist of a collection of connected nodes. These nodes are served by a name server. A domain name is usually in the form of mydomain.com. Here, .com is the top level domain. Where as mydomain is the sub domain or subdivision. A host name is a domain name that has one or more IP addresses associated with it.
When a source sends a packet to a destination, this packet has a specific path or route it follows. Different routing protocols are used to find the shortest path to the destination. The protocols maintain routing tables. Routing tables consist of a set of rules used to determine where these packets will travel. When a packet is received, a network device examines the packet and matches it to the routing table entry providing the best match for its destination. The packet keeps hopping until it reaches its destination.
Each IP address is 32 bit long. In human language the IP addresses are written in dotted decimal notation. These are then converted to binary by the computer. Each IP address has two parts: Network identifier or a network ID and host ID. The current internet protocol standard is IPV4. The IP addresses are divided into three classes: a class A network, a class B network, and a class C network. Class A being the largest. The four digit numbers in an IPV4 address, each network of class A will have different first number, and then its network will be addressed by the rest of the three numbers, or three bytes. The IP addresses identify a machine to deliver packets and load web pages.
Routing protocol specifies how the routers communicate, disseminating the information which enables the routers to be selected between two nodes in a network.
Routing protocol interacts and informs the hardware that is needed to transmit the data between transmitter and the receiver for transmission over network.
Address Resolution Protocol ARP, is responsible for mapping an IP address to its corresponding physical network address. It is mostly seen on Ethernet network.
MTU specifies the largest amount of data that can be transferred across a network.
Domain Name server or DNS is used to resolve names into IP addresses. When a web address is entered into the browser, the DNS client sends a request to the DNS server to find the corresponding IP address for the name. The DNS server receives this request and searches for the corresponding IP address in the database. If at this point the resolution fails, this server sends this request to the parent server. The request keeps going up the hierarchy to the parent servers or the closest authoritative of the DNS server to resolve the address. If the request times out an error is retuned to the client. If the server is able to resolve the name requested, it passes the information back to the client. The next request sent by the client is to request for a web page for the IP address.
IP multicast technology reduces traffic by sending stream of information to many recipients at one go. Video conferencing, stock quotas are the examples based on IP multicast.
A public IP address allows equipment accessible to everyone on the internet. A private IP address is for private use within the network and allows many more PCs to be connected. If you are using a private IP and wants VOIP, you need to change to a public IP address.