ACID is a term coined by Andrew Reuter in 1983, which stands for Atomicity, Consistence, Isolation and Durability.
ACID property is the basic property for transaction processing.
A - atomicity
C - consistency
I - isolation
D - durability
In 2-tier Client/Server systems, the application logic is either burried inside the user interface on the client or within the database on the server.
Example: File servers and Database servers with stored procedures.
Transparency really means hiding the network and its servers from the users and even the application programmers.
This new model of Client/Server consists of thin, protable, "universal" clients that talk to superfat servers. In the simplet form, a web server returns documents when clients ask for them by name. The clients and server communicate using an RPC-like protocol called HTTP.
With a database server, the client passes SQL requests as messages to the database server. The results of each SQL command are returned over the network. The server uses its own processing power to find the request data instead of passing all the records back to the client and then getting it find its own data. The result is a much more efficient use of distributed processing power. It is also known as SQL engine.
These are fully-loaded machines which includes multiprocessors, high-speed disk arrays for intervive I/O and fault tolerant features.
MOM allows general purpose messages to be exchanged in a Client/Server system using message queues. Applications communicate over networks by simply putting messages in the queues and getting messages from queues. It typically provides a very simple high level APIs to its services.
MOM's messaging and queuing allow clients and servers to communicate across a network without being linked by a private, dedicated, logical connection. The clients and server can run at different times. It is a post-office like metaphor.
TP lite, based on stored procedures.
TP heavy, based on the TP monitors.
There is no commonly accepted definition for a TP monitor. According to Jeri Edwards' a TP Monitor is "an OS for transaction processing".
TP Monitor does mainly two things extremely well. They are Process management and Transaction management.
They were originally introduced to run classes of applications that could service hundreds and sometimes thousands of clients. TP Monitors provide an OS - on top of existing OS - that connects in real time these thousands of humans with a pool of shared server processes.
Interprocess communications (IPC)
Local/Remote Interprocess communication
High performance file system
Efficient memory management and
Dynamically linked Run-time extensions.