Active directory is a centralized data base, group of servers, computer, user are common NTDS base this used in organization. Or company.
This not for OS level, its microsoft based its like installed tool server manager ADDS and Mondaory for DNS.
by using the ping command we can know wether our network is dead or alive..........
Patch management is an area of systems management that involves acquiring, testing, and installing multiple patches (code changes) to an administered computer system. Patch management tasks include: maintaining current knowledge of available patches, deciding what patches are appropriate for particular systems, ensuring that patches are installed properly, testing systems after installation, and documenting all associated procedures, such as specific configurations required. A number of products are available to automate patch management tasks, including Ringmaster's Automated Patch Management, Patch Link Update, and Gibraltar's Ever guard
TCP - Transfer Control Protocol.
* a. Reliable
* b.Connection oriented.
UDP - User Datagram Protocol.
* a.Non Reliable
* c.No Acknowledgement
It is a set of rules defining a very simple virtual terminal interaction. The NVT is used in the start of a Telnet session.
It is a simple protocol used to exchange information between the routers.
It is a very simple protocol used for transmission of IP datagrams across a serial line.
It is an authentication service developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kerberos uses encryption to prevent intruders from discovering passwords and gaining unauthorized access to files.
It is any routing protocol used within an autonomous system.