any invesment in fixed or current assets is called real
invesment and any invesment in share or debenture is called
Its nt so.. the problem had been building up for years.. so
no doubt, it is going to take time to be handled too.
talking abt india, govt came up with numerous fiscal
measures at the outburst of the crisis.. and since then, a
number of monetary steps have been taken to stabilize the
system. money is being injected for the common masses these
But the fact is that.. the job loss and impacts that have
been brought up by the us firms in india or asociates of the
us companies is long lasting. creating employemnt for
millions of those who have lost jobs would be a time
consuming task. Outsourcing of services used to b a great
source of income for india and indian companies. that has
reduced big time. so all that is bound to impact the common
Howevr, all the possible steps are being taken by the govt
to improve the purchasing power of people so as to bring the
supply demand cycle at a normal pace.
1. Thr limited exposture to derivative products.
2. The crisis mainly strtd in US, all the nations do hav
trade relations with US but in case of nations with
comparatively less imports/exports suffrd lesser.
3. Dollar value affects whole of the wrld.. bt again lesser
dealings means lesser impact.
4. underdeveloped nations who had no outsourcing
relationship with us also suffred less(unlike india.. which
is a developing country and gets a lot of outsourcing
busness frm the west)
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a theory of long-term
equilibrium exchange rates based on relative price levels of
First five year plan was based on the "Herold-Domar Model".
The aim of this plan was to start process of Balanced
Development of economy and Agriculture was on top priority
in this plan.
International Financial Reporting Standards
Amnesty is a legislative or executive act by which a state restores those who may have been guilty of an offense against it to the positions of innocent people. It includes more than pardon, in as much as it obliterates all legal remembrance of the offense. The word has the same root as amnesia. Amnesty is more and more used to express 'freedom' and the time when prisoners can go free.
The word Amnesty means grace, pardon, mercy.
1st governer ---- Sir Smith(1935-37)
1st indian Governer --- CD Deshmukh (1948-49)
Narrow money (M1) includes currency, i.e. banknotes and
coins, as well as balances which can immediately be
converted into currency or used for cashless payments, i.e.
"Intermediate" money (M2) comprises narrow money (M1) and,
in addition, deposits with a maturity of up to two years and
deposits redeemable at a period of notice of up to three
months. Depending on their degree of moneyness, such
deposits can be converted into components of narrow money,
but in some cases there may be restrictions involved, such
as the need for advance notification, delays, penalties or
fees. The definition of M2 reflects the particular interest
in analysing and monitoring a monetary aggregate that, in
addition to currency, consists of deposits which are liquid.
Broad money (M3) comprises M2 and marketable instruments
issued by the MFI sector. Certain money market instruments,
in particular money market fund (MMF) shares/units and
repurchase agreements are included in this aggregate. A high
degree of liquidity and price certainty make these
instruments close substitutes for deposits. As a result of
their inclusion, M3 is less affected by substitution between
various liquid asset categories than narrower definitions of
money, and is therefore more stable.