panchayati raj system is the system for governing rural area also called rural self government it has been built to establish democracy at the lowest level it was given constitutional status in 1992 according to the 73rd constitutional amendment.usually divided in three parts gram panchayat panchayati samiti and zilla parishad.
unilateral statement, however phrased or named, made by a
State, when signing, ratifying, accepting, approving or
acceding to a treaty, whereby it purports to exclude or to
modify the legal effect of certain provisions of the treaty
in their application to that State.
A reservation in international law is a caveat to a state's
acceptance of a treaty
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or
judicature) is the system of courts which interprets and
applies the law in the name of the sovereign or state. The
judiciary also provides a mechanism for the resolution of
disputes. Under the doctrine of the separation of powers,
the judiciary generally does not make law (that is, in a
plenary fashion, which is the responsibility of the
legislature) or enforce law (which is the responsibility of
the executive), but rather interprets law and applies it to
the facts of each case. The judiciary law has more power
than the House of Representatives.
for improving relationship between india and pakistan
firstly we need to understand the foreign issue more
clearly, and we need to think about people of both sides.
Without playing much political twist we need to solve it out
by international support.
Political science (or, if you want, politology) is a
science for two reasons. First, because it is the
structured study of a set of phenomena, involving itself
with identifying them, grouping them, forming causal and
criterial relations amongst them and providing a
theoretical framweork for them by creating theories and
testing them through the usage of experimentation and
observation, and second, because it uses what is called the
scientific method - i.e. creating and improving on theories
by falsifying them that is, by testing them against
existing observations and improving them (or disproving
them) based on those observations
Corporate (or corporation) tax is paid by companies. Depending on the law of the nation concerned, it is charged on profits, on turnover or on certain sales - or of course a combination.
Income tax is paid by individuals and is a portion of their earnings and other income taken by the state.
Since a trading company must make a profit to survive and when setting prices will include their taxes as an essential expense, all these taxes (plus any others governments dream up such as duty on petrol, tobacco and alcohol)) are, in the end, paid by the individual citizens. There is no free lunch: you cannot spare the citizens by taxing the businesses.
That is the weak point in the current policy of punishing the banks by taxing them. The banks are in a strong position when faced with the ordinary customer, and will recover the money by taking it out of our skin.
In the end the common man is, has always been, and (I am afraid) must always be Jack-pay-for-all. For ever at the bar buying, but never tasting the beer.
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru