2. Why six unit used for precision?

Since it is performed as per ICH guidelines for validation.

3. Loss of linearity in tkn analysis, possible reasons?

Contamination in calibration standards during the TKN digestion,

4. What is delay volume?

The volume from gpv to detector

5. What is the use of tlc and hplc? and when and where use?

tlc is used to check wheather the reaction is completed or not. hplc is used to identify, quantify,and for separation of mixture

7. IN pH CALIBRATION,CALIBRATION IS DONE FOR pH METER OR ELECTRODE?HOW WILL YOU JUDGE THAT THE METER TO BE CALIBRATED WITH 4,7,9.2 BUFFERS?EXPLAIN TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON pH?

calibration is also one of the system
suitability test,whether the system working satisfactory or
not physically so when you do the calibration for pH meter
with standard pH buffer solution (which is from NIST-it may
accurate solution for actual pH)and once if your instrument
has calibrated,you can cross verify your insrument against
those pH buffer solution (NIST) and the acceptable range is
+/- 0.02 then you can conclude for ?

once if temperature raises the pH will decrease and its not
all cases

8. Explain What is a base line?

#Base line is nothing but the detectors response to the
mobile phase.(gc,hplc)

#Base line should be stable to start a run.

#Un stabilized base line is called as base line noise.

#Base line noise is of many types..
1)Cyclic base line
2)Synchorinise noise
3)Asynchorinise noise
4)Base line drift
5)Spikes
6)Negative peaks
7)No peaks

#Base line noise is attributed due to mobile phase,sample,
system problems.leaks in the system,temperature variations
in lab etc..

9. WHAT IS USE OF ION PAIR REAGENTS?

The chemical substances that pair each other, to form
complexes. These can use for stabilization of one of the
molecule that is more active or to colorifying etc.

10. How to calculate signal to noise ratio by this formula 2H/h where h from where and how to measure?

The H is the height of the main peak and the h is the lowest
height of a peak in the range of X5 the main peak (around
the amin peak)

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