It is a temporary memory storage area which helps to speed up data transfer within a computer. A Microprocessor looks for the data in the Cache memory as the data transferred Cache is much faster. If the data is not found in the cache, the CPU looks for it in the memory.
The following are two types of Cache:
Internal or Level 1: In this, the Cache is built into the Microprocessor.
External or Level 2: In this, the Cache is built on a separate chip.
Some of the memory components are:
★ Semiconductor Memory:
It is used by most by most modern computers. It is reliable, inexpensive and compact. However, it requires continuous power supply and data is lost if current is interrupted.
★ RAM and ROM:
They stand for Random Access Memory and Read Only Memory respectively.
★ Flash Memory:
This memory is electrically erasable and re programmable.
RISC stands for Reduced Instruction Set Computing.
★ It uses a small subset of instructions to carry out processes.
★ As the number of instructions are lesser, the speed of processing is much improved and faster.
★ However, when complex operations are dealt with, they have to be broken down into a series of smaller instructions.
It is a type of processing in which the CPU divides the problem into two parts. It works as:
★ Each part is sent to separate processors.
★ Each processor has its own memory. They individually solve the given problems and return the result.
★ The CPU assembles the results and hence, the problem is solved.
Some computers operate in terms of teraflops or trillions of floating-point instructions per second.
The speed of the bus is measured in megahertz (MHz), refers to how much data can move across the bus simultaneously. Personal computers have a bus speeds of 400 MHz or 533 MHz.
System Bus are parallel electrical paths that transport data between the CPU and Memory. - Bus Width: The number of electrical paths that to carry the data. It is measured in Bits. With larger Bus Widths, a CPU can transfer more data at a time.
It cannot retain its contents if not continuously refreshed by the CPU. Its types are:
i. Synchronous DRAM:
It is the faster type of DRAM, used in modern and more advanced systems.
ii. Rambus DRAM:
It is faster than Synchronous DRAM and is expected to become more commonly used.
It retains its contents with the help of CPU. It is faster and more expensive than Dynamic RAM. It is generally used for Level 2 cache.
Transistors are electronic switches that may or may not allow the flow of current in a current path.
★ When it allows current to flow, the switch is ON. This represents 1 bit.
★ When it does not allow current to flow, the switch is OFF. This represents 0 bit.
★ Transistors are placed into chips also known as IC. They measure in mm`s and are known contain millions of transistors.
★ Microprocessors these days are created using microns as their measuring size.
They comprise of the following key components:
Central Processing Unit:
It carries out the instructions of a computer system
They store bits of information in a way that all the bits can be written to or read out simultaneously.
simple count of the number of ticks that have transpired since some arbitrary starting date, called the Epoch.