1. Described POST beep codes of an IBM system?

The IBM POST beep codes are as follows:

★ 1 short beep: This indicates that the POST was normal without any exceptions.
★ 2 short beeps: This indicates there was an error and the message is displayed on the screen.
★ No beep: Indicates no power or disconnection.
★ Continuous beep: This is indicative of a power supply, motherboard or a keyboard problem.
★ One long one short beep: this is indicative of a problem with the mother / system board.
★ One long two short beeps indicates that there is a problem with the display adapter

2. Tell me what common modern motherboard contain?

The modern motherboards at a minimum contain at least:

★ Sockets: The sockets are used to install the processor.
★ The memory slots where the user can install the main memory for the system.
★ Chipset: The chipset is used as a the interface for communication between the processor, main memory and the bus.
★ Flash ROM: These store permanents information such as the BIOS, firmware etc.
★ Power connector: The power connector is connected with the SMPS to deliver power to the components on the motherboard.
★ Expansion slots: The expansion slots are used for various devices to be connected to the system.

3. Which process of DOS being controlled by Motherboard?

The DOS control can be explained in the following steps:
★ The first step the boot loader loads the boot record to the memory, which is given the control ( boot program ) inside the boot record.
★ This program now check for the IO.SYS and MSDOS.SYS as the first entries.
★ Now the program loads the IO.SYS and is given control.
★ The IO.SYS simply loads the MSDOS.SYS file and starts looking for the CONFIG.SYS file .
★ Finally the MSDOS.SYS file is given control, this file now initializes interrupt vectors and loads the COMMAND.COM file.
★ Lastly the autoexec.bat file is loaded, executed.

4. Described the characteristics of micro programmed control?

Characteristics of micro programmed control units:
★ These control units are implemented as micro programs of routines.
★ The control unit implemented in micro program is implemented in the form of a CPU inside another CPU.
★ These types of circuits are simple but comparatively slower.

5. Described characteristics of hardwired control units?

The characteristics of hardwired control units are as follows:
★ Hardwired control units are based on combinational circuits.
★ In these type of systems the inputs and transforms are set into control signals.
★ Theses units are faster and are known to have a more complex structure.

6. Explain multiple LSI's are used in computers list out some of their special purposes?

Some of the purposes for which the LSI are used are as follows:

★ PIC or the programmable interrupt controller.
★ PIT or the programmable interrupt timer.
★ PPI or programmable peripheral interface.
★ CRTC is used for the controlling of the CRT.
★ The floppy disk, hard disk and DMA controller are used for special purposes.
★ The real time calendar or clock is used to organize and sort out things.

7. Described Characteristics of multiprogramming?

★ Multiple programs can be present in the memory at a given time.
★ The resources are dynamically allocated.
★ The size of the memory is larger comparatively.

8. Described characteristics of uniprogramming?

★ Uni programming allows only one program to be present in memory at a time.
★ The resources are provided to the single program that is present in the memory at that time.
★ Since only one program is loaded the size is small as well.

9. List the features of physical addresses?

★ The physical address as the name suggests is the actual location which can be found in the memory.
★ They are used by the CPU in order to specify the range of addresses.

10. List the features of logical address?

★ The logical address is used by the CPU and is actually a specification.
★ It is used to represent the size of the CPU address register size.

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