Shut the database
Backup the database
Modify/Include LOG_ARCHIVE_START_TRUE in init.ora file.
Start up the database.
To enable archiving
first shutdown the database in normal mode
then open ur parameter file and include a parameter
archive_log_dest=(give a OS level location)
then come out of it and at OS level create same directory which u have just mentioned in parameter file
then startup mount
then alter database archivelog
then alter database open
in order to know whether ur database is functioning in archive mode or not
type at sql promt
By setting the following values in init.ora file.
LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT = arch %S/s/T/tarc (%S - Log sequence number and is zero left paded, %s - Log sequence number not padded. %T - Thread number lef-zero-paded and %t - Thread number not padded). The file name created is arch 0001 are if %S is used. LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST = path.
Roles are the easiest way to grant and manage common privileges needed by different groups of database users. Creating roles and assigning provides to roles. Assign each role to group of users. This will simplify the job of assigning privileges to individual users.
we secure data through encryption and decryption.
Data abstraction has been achieved in Oracle by separating the client and the server side logic. Therefore the client applications cannot manipulate the data. The triggers perform content based auditing and selectively disable application updates.
Access control can be achieved in Oracle by allowing the users to manipulate the data by using only their definer?s permitted previledges.
The collective amount of disk space available to the objects in a schema on a particular tablespace.
If we want to say that our Database is secured then we must confirm first that our Data is validate.There are various methods of validating the Data:1. Accept only known valid Data.2. Reject known Bad Data.3. Sanitize Bad data. We cannot emphasize strongly enough that "Accept Only Known Valid Data" is the best strategy. We do, however, recognize that this isn't always feasible for political, financial or technical reasons, and so we describe the other strategies as well.All three methods must check: * Data Type * Syntax * Length Data type checking is extremely important. The application should check to ensure a string is being submitted and not an object, for instance.Accept Only Known Valid DataAs we mentioned, this is the preferred way to validate data. Applications should accept only input that is known to be safe and expected. As an example, let's assume a password reset system takes in usernames as input. Valid usernames would be defined as ASCII A-Z and 0-9. The application should check that the input is of type string, is comprised of A-Z and 0-9 (performing canonicalization checks as appropriate) and is of a valid length.Reject Known Bad DataThe rejecting bad data strategy relies on the application knowing about specific malicious payloads. While it is true that this strategy can limit exposure, it is very difficult for any application to maintain an up-to-date database of web application attack signatures.Sanitize All DataAttempting to make bad data harmless is certainly an effective second line of defense, especially when dealing with rejecting bad input. However, as described in the canonicalization section of this document, the task is extremely hard and should not be relied upon as a primary defense technique.
SQL * DBA - This allows DBA to monitor and control an ORACLE database.
SQL * Loader - It loads data from standard operating system files (Flat files) into ORACLE database tables.
Export (EXP) and Import (imp) utilities allow you to move existing data in ORACLE format to and from ORACLE database.
The steps are :
* First set REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE=EXCLUSIVE in init.ora file
* Then dbs$orapwd file=orapw$ORACLE_SID password=sys force=y
* Then startup force;
* Then grant sysdba to user(any user in the database);
* Then conn user/user
* Then conn user/user as sysdba
* Then show user
DBA - role Contains all database system privileges.
SYS user account - The DBA role will be assigned to this account. All of the base tables and views for the database's dictionary are store in this schema and are manipulated only by ORACLE.
SYSTEM user account - It has all the system privileges for the database and additional tables and views that display administrative information and internal tables and views used by oracle tools are created using this username.