1. The three stop codons UAG, UAA, UGA do not code for any proteins. then why does the start codon AUG code for a protein, i.e, methionine?

AUG codon codes for an amino acid ;Methionine, because a tRNA is available with the anti-codon complementary to the AUG codon. This tRNA brings in the Methionine molecule when charged to the site of protein synthesis ie Ribosomes in the cytosol.

3. Is male child having more genital sequence as of father or mother?

Male child is having the genital sequence equally as the
mother and father because in male child the x-chromosome
comes from mother and the y-chromosome comes from father

4. What is the method used to identify your transformed cells from the plasmid vector?

I) If transformant is thought to have antibiotic resistant
gene (called as Marker Gene)along with ur desired gene, then
culture those cells in a media containing that same
==>Case 1:- the cell is not transformed.:-
the cell will not have the antibiotic resistant gene, hence
it wont grow (or simply die)bcoz of antibiotic in the media.
==>Case 2:-the cell is successfully transformed.:-
The cell will easily grow in media bcoz antibiotic wont
affect it as cell will resist it.(bcoz of marker gene).

5. Explain steps involved in transcription?

there are 3 basic steps initiation, elongation and termination

6. What is totipotency?

The inherent capacity of a cell to divide as well as
differentiate to form a whole organism is known as totipotency

7. Name three scientists involved in Human Genome Project?

craig ventor
james watson'
francis collins

8. If mutation occurs at the antron region of primary RNA, then what will be it causes?

If mutation occirs at intron region of primary transcript
then functional mRNA will not be generated. This is due to
defect in mRNA splicing. May be this mutation occurs at one
of the splice site which results in production of mRNA of
different sizes.

9. Why dna has no uricel while rna had?

because in DNA if uracil is present then it would be more
prone to mutations as urasil has non specific binding also
stability factoe comes to play a role.