1. Where does the expression "op-ed" come from and what does it mean?

The op-ed page is the page directly opposite the page that contains that particular newspaper's editorials. It is a forum for views from people, columnists from other papers, readers, and letters to the editor, etc.

2. In publishing, what does Volume/Issue/Number refer to, as in Architectural Digest Volume 63/Issue 6/Number 1?

Volume generally refers to the year published, so Column 63 would mean it was the 63rd year a magazine was published. Issue 6 would be the sixth of the year, if it was monthly it would be June bimonthly, December.

3. What are tear sheets and clips for copy editors?

You can make color reductions and I am sure they will be acceptable. Journalism graphics majors at our university usually buy large portfolios--at least 12 by 17 to put their design tear sheets. Electronic PDF are becoming more and more acceptable. Some of our students here have made online digital portfolios and put their resumes and all of their tear sheets (article and design) on a website.

4. What are reporter credentials? How are credentials obtained?

There is no standard for a reporter's credentials; the only thing I ever had was my employee ID card issued at the time I got the job, and that was always fine. There may be something issued for entertainment or sports journalism, but I do not know those areas.

Some venues may require that you send in a request on corporate letterhead (stationery) for a special event's credentials, but those standards would vary from event to event.

5. What is the difference between a Magazine and Newspapers in term of the content of each media?

The simple answer is that newspaper contains news articles and magazines contain feature articles. However, the U.S. has 18,000 magazines and about 4,000 newspapers. In addition, both contain some of both. The main difference is in audience. Newspapers focus on a broad audience of all ages in one specific city or location. Magazines go to a national or international audience who has an interest in a specific subject, such as gardening, photography, Christianity, history, etc. Newspapers are published daily or weekly; magazines are published monthly, bi-monthly, or quarterly. However, those are generalizations and this kind of question, probably a homework question, escapes simple answers.

6. How many photographs are published annually in U.S. print media? Is there a declining or growing market for freelance photography or stock photography?

There is no way of knowing and no one tracks this information. There are 18,000 magazines in the U.S. published at least quarterly (and most monthly), 1,500 daily newspapers, 3,000 weekly newspapers. As far as the second question as to whether there is a growing or declining market for freelance photography--please e-mail one of my colleagues--a professor of photojournalism at Ball State University. He can probably answer this question for you as he has done a considerable amount of freelance photography in his career.

7. When a person has information about a news story or information worthy of reporting how do they go about it? Do they set an appointment with a reporter or does the reporter seek them?

You can call your local newspaper and tell whoever answers the telephone that you have information they might be interested in as news.

In the newspapers I worked for, your call would likely be transferred to the City Room, and would be answered on the City Desk by a clerk. The clerk would ask you questions to determine what you had, and what its news value was. Be prepared to answer specific questions about the facts of the story.

8. When it comes to working in book and magazine publishing, is it always necessary to be a writer first, then an editor?

No, it is not necessary. There are some different skills required to be a successful editor than to be a successful writer. Of course, there is some overlap. However, many people have fine editing skills that are not necessary great writers. Most entry-level position at magazines is as editorial assistants or assistant editors. Magazines use mostly freelance writers and few of them have full-time writers. Editors in chief need good supervisory and management skills as well.

9. What should an "editors note" contain? How does one write it?

An editor's note is usually found in the first several pages of a magazine, and can contain anything from the editor's most recent experiences to his/her opinion on the contents of the magazine. Editor's notes can also contain responses to readers' letters, new research on whatever the subject of the magazine is, event tips.

Editor's notes usually reveal the editor's personality, which makes readers come back for more!

10. What effect did the yellow journalism used by Hearst and Pulitzer before and during the Spanish American War?

Yellow Journalism has always had an effect on the way people view different subjects, and how governmental policies are made.

The more sensational the assertion, or outright lie, the more people seem inclined to believe it.

Back in the days of Hurst, and Pulitzer, the media was much less accountable for what it printed, and there were few laws, or rules of conduct for the media to adhere.

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