1. Why does software have bugs?

1. Miscommunication or no communication - as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements).
2. Software complexity - the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. Multi-tiered applications, client-server and distributed applications, data communications, enormous relational databases, and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. programming errors - programmers, like anyone else, can make mistakes.
3. Changing requirements (whether documented or undocumented) - the end-user may not understand the effects of changes, or may understand and request them anyway - redesign, rescheduling of engineers, effects on other projects, work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out, hardware requirements that may be affected, etc. If there are many minor changes or any major changes, known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems, and the complexity of coordinating changes may result in errors. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. In some fast-changing business environments, continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. In this case, management must understand the resulting risks, and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control.

2. What are the tables in testplans and testcases?

Test plan is a document that contains the scope, approach, test design and test strategies. It includes the following:-
1. Test case identifier
2. Scope
3.Features to be tested
4. Features not to be tested.
5. Test strategy.
6. Test Approach
7. Test Deliverables
8. Responsibilities.
9 Staffing and Training
10.Risk and Contingencies
11. Approval

While A test case is a noted/documented set of steps/activities that are carried out or executed on the software in order to confirm its functionality/behavior to certain set of inputs.

3. What are the table contents in testplans and test cases?

Test Plan is a document which is prepared with the details of the testing priority. A test Plan generally includes:

1. Objective of Testing
2. Scope of Testing
3. Reason for testing
4. Timeframe
5. Environment
6. Entrance and exit criteria
7. Risk factors involved
8. Deliverables

4. What automating testing tools are you familiar with?

Win Runner , Load runner, QTP , Silk Performer, Test director, Rational robot, QA run.

5. How did you use automating testing tools in your job?

1. For regression testing
2. Criteria to decide the condition of a particular build
3. Describe some problem that you had with automating testing tool.

The problem of winrunner identifying the third party controls like infragistics control.

6. How do you plan test automation?

1. Prepare the automation Test plan
2. Identify the scenario
3. Record the scenario
4. Enhance the scripts by inserting check points and Conditional Loops
5. Incorporated Error Handler
6. Debug the script
7. Fix the issue
8. Rerun the script and report the result.

7. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance?

Solving problems is a high-visibility process; preventing problems is low-visibility.
This is illustrated by an old parable:
In ancient China there was a family of healers, one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord. The physician was asked which of his family was the most skillful healer. He replied, "I tend to the sick and dying with drastic and dramatic treatments, and on occasion someone is cured and my name gets out among the lords."
"My elder brother cures sickness when it just begins to take root, and his skills are known among the local peasants and neighbors."
"My eldest brother is able to sense the spirit of sickness and eradicate it before it takes form. His name is unknown outside our home."

8. What kinds of testing should be considered?

Black box testing - not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. Tests are based on requirements and functionality.
White box testing - based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code. Tests are based on coverage of code statements, branches, paths, conditions.
unit testing - the most 'micro' scale of testing; to test particular functions or code modules. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers, as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code; may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses.
incremental integration testing - continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added; requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed, or that test drivers be developed as needed; done by programmers or by testers.

9. What is the difference between black box and white box testing?

Black-box and white-box are test design methods. Black-box test design treats the system as a “black-box”, so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral, functional, opaque-box, and closed-box. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the “box”, and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. Synonyms for white-box include: structural, glass-box and clear-box.
While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use, many people prefer the terms 'behavioral' and 'structural'. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden, but it's still discouraged. In practice, it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. Some call this 'gray-box' or 'translucent-box' test design, but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether.

10. Will automated testing tools make testing easier?

- Possibly. For small projects, the time needed to learn and implement them may not be worth it. For larger projects, or on-going long-term projects they can be valuable.
- A common type of automated tool is the 'record/playback' type. For example, a tester could click through all combinations of menu choices, dialog box choices, buttons, etc. in an application GUI and have them 'recorded' and the results logged by a tool. The 'recording' is typically in the form of text based on a scripting language that is interpretable by the testing tool. If new buttons are added, or some underlying code in the application is changed, etc. the application can then be retested by just 'playing back' the 'recorded' actions, and comparing the logging results to check effects of the changes. The problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the system being tested, the 'recordings' may have to be changed so much that it becomes very time-consuming to continuously update the scripts. Additionally, interpretation of results (screens, data, logs, etc.) can be a difficult task. Note that there are record/playback tools for text-based interfaces also, and for all types of platforms.

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