1. Explain The Requirements of Testing Technique:

Usage " To ensure that system performs correctly
" To ensure that correctness can be sustained for a considerable period of time.
" System can be tested for correctness through all phases of SDLC but incase of reliability the programs should be in place to make system operational.
Objectives " Successfully implementation of user requirements
" Correctness maintained over considerable period of time
" Processing of the application complies with the organization's policies and procedures.
" Secondary users needs are fulfilled -
Security officer
Internal auditors
Record retention
How to Use " Test conditions created
These test conditions are generalized ones, which becomes test cases as the SDLC progresses until system is fully operational.
Test conditions are more effective when created from user's requirements.
Test conditions if created from documents then if there are any error in the documents those will get incorporated in Test conditions and testing would not be able to find those errors.
Test conditions if created from other sources (other than documents) error trapping is effective.
" Functional Checklist created.
When to use " Every application should be Requirement tested
" Should start at Requirements phase and should progress till operations and maintenance phase.
" The method used to carry requirement testing and the extent of it is important.
Examples " Creating test matrix to prove that system requirements as documented are the requirements desired by the user.
" Creating checklist to verify that application complies to the organizational policies and procedures.

2. Explain Web-Enabled Development and Test automation?

Web-Enabled application go further in these areas:

* Web-enabled application are meant to be stateless. HTTP was designed to be stateless. Each request from a Web-enabled application is meant to be atomic and not rely on any previouse requests. This has huge advantages for system architecture and datacenter provisioning. When requests are stateless, then any sserver can respond to the request and any request handler on any server may service the request.
* Web-enabled application are platform independent. The client application may be written for Windows, Macintosh, Linux, and any other platform that is capable of implementing the command protocol and network connection to the server.
* Web-enabled application expect the client application to provide presentation rendering and simple scripting capabilities. The client application is usually a browser, however, it may also be a dedication client application such as a retail cash register, a Windows-based data analysis tool, ot an electronic address book in your mobile phone.

The missing context in a Web-enabled application test automation means that software developers and QA technicians must manually script tests for each Web-enalbled application. Plus, they need to maintain the test scriots as the application changes. Web-enabled application test automation tools focus on making the scriot writing and maintenance tasks easier. The test automation tool offer these features:

* A friendly, graphical user interface to integrate the record, edit, and run-time script functions.
* A recorder that watches how an application is used and writes a test script for you.
* A playback utility that drives a Web-enalbed application by processing the test script and logging. The playback utility also provides the facility to play back several concurrently running copies of the same script to check the system for scalability and load testing.
* A report utility to show how the playback differed from the original recording. The differences may be slower or faster performance times, errors, and incomplete transactions.

3. Explain Clicent/Server Development and Test automation?

The original intent for client/server applications was to separete presentation logic from business logic. In an ideal system design, the client was reponsible for presenting the user interface, command elements (drop-down menus, buttons, controls), displayed results information in a set of windows, charts, and dials. The client connected to a server to process functions and the server responded with data.

In a client/server environment the protocols are cleanly defined so that all the clients use the same protocols to communicate with the server.

The client-side frameworks to provide the same functionality of desktop application frameworks plus most of the needed communication code to issue commands to the server and the code needed to automatically update a client with new functions received from the server.The server-side frameworks provide code needed to received and handle requests from multiple clients, and code to connect to database for data persistence and remote information providers. Additionally, these framworks need to handle stateful transations and intermittent network connections. Stateful transactions require multiple steps to accomplish a task.

Client/server applications are normally transactional in nature and usually several interactions with the user are needed to finish a single request. For example, in a stock trading application the user begins a transaction by identifying themselves to the server, looking up an order code, and then submitting a request to the server, and receives and presents the results to the user. The client-side application normally knows something about the transaction - for example, the client-side application will normally store the user identification and a session code such as cookie value across the user's interaction with the server-based application. Users like it better when the client-side application knows about the transaction because each step in a request can be optimized in the client application. For example. in the stock trading example the client application could calculate a stock trade commission locally without having to communication with server.

Client/server application test automation provides the functionality of desktop application test automation plus these:

* Client/server applications operate in a network environment. The tests need to not only check for the function of an application, they need to test how the application handles slow or intermittent network performance.
* Automated test are ideal to determine the number of client applications a server is able to efficiently handle at any given time.
* The server is usually a middle tier between the client application and several data sources. Automated tests need to check the server for correct functionality while it communicates with the data source.

4. When test a FoxPro database?

* If the database is linked to other database, are the links secure and working?
* If the database publishes to the Internet, is the data correct?
* When data is deployed, is it still accurate?
* Do the queries give accurate information to the reports?
* If thedatabase performs calculations, are the calculatons accurate?

5. When testing a SQL server?

* If the Web site publishes from inside the SQL Server straight to a Web page, is the data accurate and of the correct data type?
* If the SQL Server reads from a stored procedure to produce a Web page or if the stored procedure is changed, does the data on the page change?
* If you are using FrontPage or interDev is the data connection to your pages secure?
* Does the database have scheduled maintenance with a log so testers can set changes or errors?
* Can the tester check to see how back ups are being handled?
* Is the database secure?

6. Explain Data validity?

The most common data errors are due to incorrect data entry, called data validity errors.

7. How to Query reaponse time?

The turnaround time for responding to queries in a database must be short; therefor, query response time is essential for online transactions. The results from this test will help to identify problems, such as possible bottlenecks in the network, sspecific queries, the database structure, or the hardware.

8. What is the Regression testing?

Did a new build break an existing function? Repeat testing after changes for managing risk relate to product enhancement.

A regression test is performded when the tester wishes to see the progress of the testing processs by performing identical tests before and after a bug has been fixed. A regression test allows the tester to compare expeted test results with the actual results.

Regression testing's primary objective is to ensure that all bugfree features stay that way. In addition, bugs which have been fixed once should not turn up again in subsequent program versions.

Regression testing: After every software modification or before next release, we repeat all test cases to check if fixed bugs are not show up again and new and existing functions are all working correctly.

Regression testing is used to confirm that fixed bugs have, in fact, been fixed and that new bugs have not been introduced in the process, and that festures that were proven correctly functional are intact. Depending on the size of a project, cycles of regression testing may be perform once per milestone or once per build. Some bug regression testing may also be performed during each accceptance test cycle, forcusing on only the most important bugs. Regression tests can be automated.

CONDITIONS DURING WHICH REGRESSION TESTS MAY BE RUN Issu fixing cycle. Once the development team has fixed issues, a regression test can be run t ovalidate the fixes. Tests are based on the step-by-step test casess that were originally reported:

* If an issue is confirmeded as fixed, then the issue report status should be changed to Closed.
* If an issue is confirmed as fixed, but with side effects, then the issue report status should be changed to Closed. However, a new issue should be filed to report the side effect.
* If an issue is only partially fixed, then the issue report resolution should be changed back to Unfixed, along with comments outlining the oustanding problems

Open-status regression cycle. Periodic regression tests may be run on all open issue in the issue-tracking database. During this cycle, issue status is confirmed either the report is reproducible as is with no modification, the report is reproducible with additional comments or modifications, or the report is no longer reproducible

Closed-fixed regression cycle. In the final phase of testing, a full-regression test cycle should be run to confirm the status of all fixed-closed issues.

Feature regression cycle. Each time a new build is cut or is in the final phase of testing depending on the organizational procedure, a full-regression test cycle should be run to confirm that the proven correctly functional features are still working as expected.

9. Explain Boundary Test?

Boundary tests are designed to check a program's response to extreme input values. Extreme output values are generated by the input values. It is important to check that a program handles input values and output results correctly at the lower and upper boundaries. Keep in mind that you can create extreme boundary results from non-extreme input values. It is essential to analyze how to generate extremes of both types. In addition. sometime you know that there is an intermediate variable involved in processing. If so, it is useful to determine how to drive that one through the extremes and special conditions such as zero or overflow condition.

10. What is Privilage testing?

What happens when the everyday user tries to access a control that is authorized only for adminstrators?

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