Passive objects are one, which passively waits for the message to be processed. It waits for another object that requires its services. In simple words it can be referred as server.
Static modeling is used to specify structure of the objects that exist in the problem domain. These are expressed using class, object and USECASE diagrams.
Dynamic modeling refers representing the object interactions during run-time. It is represented by sequence, activity, collaboration and state-chart diagrams.
The Document Object Model (DOM) is a cross-platform and language-independent convention for representing and interacting with objects in HTML, XHTML and XML documents. Objects in the DOM tree may be addressed and manipulated by using methods on the objects. The public interface of a DOM is specified in its application programming interface (API).
There are 5 operators which cannot be overloaded. They are:
★ .* - class member access operator
★ :: - scope resolution operator
★ . - dot operator
★ ?:: - conditional operator
★ Sizeof() - operator
Note:- This is possible only in C++.
Integer, floating-point, logical, and character arrays are permitted. Floating-point arrays can be complex. For elements of A with identical values, the order of these elements is preserved in the sorted list. When A is complex, the elements are sorted by magnitude, i.e., abs(A), and where magnitudes are equal, further sorted by phase angle, i.e., angle(A), on the interval [−π, π]. If A includes any NaN elements, sort places these at the high end.
B = sort(A,dim) sorts the elements along the dimension of A specified by a scalar dim.
B = sort(...,mode) sorts the elements in the specified direction, depending on the value of mode.
Ascending order (default)
[B,IX] = sort(A,...) also returns an array of indices IX, where size(IX) == size(A). If A is a vector, B = A(IX). If A is an m-by-n matrix, then each column of IX is a permutation vector of the corresponding column of A, such that
for j = 1:n
B(:,j) = A(IX(:,j),j);
If A has repeated elements of equal value, the returned indices preserve the original ordering.
Example:Sort horizontal vector A:
A = [78 23 10 100 45 5 6];
ans =5 6 10 23 45 78 100
B = sort(A)
B = sort(A,dim)
B = sort(...,mode)
[B,IX] = sort(A,...)
B = sort(A) sorts the elements along different dimensions of an array, and arranges those elements in ascending order.
If A is a ... sort(A) ...
Vector Sorts the elements of A.
Matrix Sorts each column of A.
☼ Multidimensional array Sorts A along the first non-singleton dimension, and returns an array of sorted vectors.
☼ Cell array of strings Sorts the strings in ascending ASCII dictionary order, and returns a vector cell array of strings. The sort is case-sensitive; uppercase letters appear in the output before lowercase. You cannot use the dim or mode options with a cell array.
A condition that should return true before returning from an invoked function. In order to use a function correctly a post condition should return true. Taking a stack as an example, is empty () must necessarily be true after pushing the element into the stack when an element is pushed. The function is empty () is a post condition.
A condition that should return true when a member function is invoked. In order to use a function correctly a precondition should return true. If a precondition fails to hold, an operation will not take responsibility to perform any action of sensibility. For example, the interface invariants of stack class respond nothing about pushing even though the stack is already full. In this scenario, sinful () is a precondition for push operation.