1. Ammeter burns out when connected in parallel. give reasons?

I don't think so. because ammeter measure current, for which resistant should be low. this is possible only when ammeter is connected in parallel order.
one case may happen if resistant is extremely low then maximum current will pass, then only there are chances of burning the ammeter.

2. What is the yous of HPLC, how we use the columns, what is the important in the pharma field?

HPLC is high performance liquid chromatography,it is used
for analytical purpose for identification of impurity in
drugs during its synthesis. during preparation phase it
helps in understanding the solvent to be chosen and RT of
the component. it can also separate different component of
drug based on their Retention time. RT varies with column
used and the mobile phase used.

3. What is a turnover number of an enzyme? Is that always an evaluation parameter of the activity of the enzyme?

turnover number of enzyme is number of substrate it
converts into product per minute.turnover number is
depended on substrate affinity, physical condition of the
enzyme (ph, temperature).

4. Explain the terms MS-DOS and WINDOWS?

MS dos is a command user interface(cui )and windows is
graphical user interface (gui) means user can interact with
os only through the set of internal and external dos
commands whereas in windows it can be done by just a
clicking on items
directory in dos is caleed folder in windows

5. What is Movements?

As plants are fixed to the ground, they cannot move bodily
but their protoplasm is sensitive to certain external
factors act as stimuli such as heat, light, gravity,
chemicals, electricity etc.

Movements may be classified into two main groups.
1. Autonomic or Spontaneous.
2. Paratonic or Induced.
Spontaneous Movements. It is the movements of creation
organs of plants without the influence of any external
stimuli e.g. movement of protoplasm and cilia, brisk
movement of many desmids movement of protoplasm and cilia,
brisk movement of many desmids etc..

This type of movements may be of two kinds.
(a)Movement of variation:- These movement are due to
variation in turgity of cell. This movement is exhibited by
This kind of movement is seen in Indian telegraph plant.
(b)Movement of growth:- This si movement of growing regions
die to unequal growth of organs on different sides. This
kind is seen in some creepers and trailers and this type of
movement is very slow.

Induced Movement:-This is movement of plant organ are
induced by some external stimuls. These induced movements
are of following kinds


(a)Taxes:-Taxic movements are the movements of free organs
or entire free organism induced by external sources at
temperature light and chemical substance. Cillated bodies as
Zoospores and antherozoids show this kind of movement. These
bodies either show positive or negative movement by the

(b)Tropism:- In this type of movement the organ concerned
moves either towards the source of the stimulus or away from
it. These movements are also influenced by external stimulus
as contact gravity and moisture. These movements are of
following kinds according to nature of stimulus.

(c)Haptotropism:-This moment is induced by contact with
foreign body. Climbers, Tendils and twinning stems show
this kind of movement, when climbers or tendrils some in
contact with any support, the opposite side of contact
continues to grow while the growth of contacted side is
checked. This opposite side continues to grow while the
growth of contacted side is checked. This opposite side
continue to grow until it coil around the object. Some
climbers climb clockwise some move anticlockwise.

(d)Phototropism:- These movements of plant organs are due to
influence of light. Some organs of plants are attracted by
light and grow towards it as shoots. These are positively
heliotropic or positively phototropic but some orgems e.g.
roots grow away form light are known to be negatively
phototropic or negatively heliotropic. Dorsiventral leaves
are said to be Diaheliotropic these grow at tight angles
to the direction of light so their upper surface is only
exposed to light.
(e) Geotropism:-This kind of plant movement is due to
influence of forced gravity. The roots shows positive
geotropism but stem show negative geotropism.
(f)Moisture:-This movement of plant organs is due to
moisture and is known as hydrotropism. Roots show a great
tendency to grow towards the source of moisture and these
are therefore known as positively hydrotropism.
(g)Nasties or Nastic Movements:- Nasties or nastic movements
are movements dorsiventral or like petals, leaves induced by
external stimuli as contact light, and temperature. These
movements not like tropic movements, as in these directions
of movements is not determined by direction of stimulus.
Two the of movements are found under these which are as follows
(h)Scismonasty:-This type of movement is so called as this
is brought about by some mechanical stimuli as contact with
a foreign body; drops of rain etc.
Examples of plants which show this kind of movements are
sensitive plant, Neptunia

Nyctinasty:-This type of movement is due to alternation of
day and night i.e. light and darkness. Leaves are mostly
affected by this kind of movement. Lequminous plants show
this kind of movements.

6. What is information?

The result that has been generated after processing of raw
data is called information.

7. What are the basic principles of regulation?

Principle for Regulation (especially of GEne expression) lies in either positive control(eukaryotes) or negative control(prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes) It depends on certain cis acting elements like promoter,enhancer,etc. and trans acting elements like repressors,transcription factors etc.

8. What are neuromodulators?

Neuromodulators modulate regions or circuits of the brain.
They affect a group of neurons, causing a modulation of
that group.

9. What are the advantages and disadvantages of transgenic animals for neuroscientific studies?

the advantages are
► in medical research, transgenic animals are used to
identify the functions of specific factors in complex
homeostatic systems through over- or under-expression of a
modified gene (the inserted transgene);
► in toxicology: as responsive test animals (detection of
► in mammalian developmental genetics;
► in molecular biology, the analysis of the regulation of
gene expression makes use of the evaluation of a specific
genetic change at the level of the whole animal;
► in the pharmaceutical industry, targeted production of
pharmaceutical proteins, drug production and product
efficacy testing;
► in biotechnology: as producers of specific proteins;