The systematic and effective use of all available resources to ensure a desirable outcome and completion of the flight. Focusing on communication, teamwork, task allocation, decision-making and situational awareness.
The major contributors in the CRM process are: Dispatchers, flight attendants, maintenance, ATC and of course the cockpit crew.
Non-precision: MAP is usually visually identified by a capitol and bold "M" in the Jepps or at the end of the solid line on NOS. There are several ways to id the MAP: Published DME at the MAP, Navaid such as the middle marker (MM), or timing from the FAF
A private pilot may limit himself to knowledge of English good enough to understand control towers. Other pilots, being more publicly involved figures by necessity, greatly benefit from knowing more than one language.
Becoming a pilot and graduating from college as to be the biggest accomplish so far.
Requirements for filing an alternate. 1-2-3: 1hr before to 1hr after estimated time of arrival, the weather must be forecast to be 2000' ceiling and 3SM vis.
one that is knowledgeable, decisive, conservative and safety conscious, good people skills, superior communication skills, solid piloting skills, can manage stress and avoid confrontation
Besides relevant college degree(s), pilots graduate from flying school and participate in annual additional training.
It's an altitude derived by Jepp or provided by state authorities. If derived by Jepp, Grid MORA clear all terrain and structures by 1000' in areas where highest elevations are 5000' MSL or lower. MORA values clear all terrain and structures by 2000' in areas where highest elevations are 5001' MSL or higher. Grid MORA (State) altitude supplied by the State Authority provides 2000' clearance in mountainous areas and 1000' in non-mountainous areas. Also... a +/- denote doubtful accuracy but are believed to provide sufficient reference point clearance.
CRM is a system which allows optimum use of all available resources - equipment, procedures, interpersonal communication, team work - all to promote safety and enhance efficiency in operations