2. What are the main difference between Micro-Controller and Micro- Processor?

A microcontroller is by definition a is a computer on a chip. It includes all the necessary parts (including the memory) all in one IC. You just need to apply the power (and possibly clock signal) to that device and it starts executing the program programmed to it. A microcontroller generally has the main CPU core, ROM/EPROM/EEPROM/FLASH, RAM and some necessary functions (like timers and I/O controllers) all integrated into one chip. The original idea behind the
microcontroller was to limit the capabilities of the CPU itself, allowing a complete computer (memory, I/O, interrupts, etc) to fit on the available silicon real estate.
Microcontrollers are typically used where processing power isn't so important. More important are generally compact construction, small size, low power consumption and that those chips are cheap. For example controlling a microwave oven is easily accomplished with the smallest of microcontrollers. There is countless number of small
electronic devices which are nowadays based on microcontroller. A modern home can include easily tens or hundreds of microcontrollers, as almost every modern device which has electronics have a microcontroller (or more than one) inside.
Microprocessor is generally just the CPU core itself, although nowadays it might have some accessory parts also integrated to the same chip

3. What are the difference phases of software development or software life cycle?

Specification of the task
Design of algorithms
Implementation (coding)
Testing and debugging
Maintenance and evolution of the system

4. What is the important aspect of a real-time system or Mission Critical Systems?

A real time operating system has well defined fixed time constraints. Process must be done within the defined constraints or the system will fail. An example is the operating system for a flight control computer or an advanced jet airplane. Often used as a control device in a dedicated application such as controlling scientific experiments, medical imaging systems, industrial control systems, and some display systems.Real-Time systems may be either hard or soft real-time.

Hard real-time:
Secondary storage limited or absent, data stored in short term memory, or read-only memory (ROM) Conflicts with time-sharing systems, not supported by general-purpose operating systems.

Soft real-time:
► Limited utility in industrial control of robotics
► Useful in applications (multimedia, virtual reality) requiring advanced operating-system features.

5. What is a Real-Time System?

A real time process is a process that must respond to the events within a certain time period. A real time operating system is an operating system that can run real time processes successfully

7. Explain the difference between microkernel and macro kernel?

A micro-kernel is a minimal operating system that performs only the essential functions of an operating system. All other operating system functions are performed by system processes.

A monolithic operating system is one where all operating system code is in a single executable image and all operating system code runs in system mode.

8. Difference between Primary storage and secondary storage?

Main memory:
only large storage media that the CPU can access directly.

Secondary storage:
extension of main memory that provides large nonvolatile storage capacity.

9. Describe different job scheduling in operating systems?

Scheduling is the activity of the deciding when process will receive the resources they request.

FCSFS stands for First Come First Served. In FCFS the job that has been waiting the longest is served next.

Round Robin Scheduling:
Round Robin scheduling is a scheduling method where each process gets a small quantity of time to run and then it is preempted and the next process gets to run. This is called time-sharing and gives the effect of all the processes running at the same time

Shortest Job First:
The Shortest job First scheduling algorithm is a nonpreemptive scheduling algorithm that chooses the job that will execute the shortest amount of time.

Priority Scheduling:
Priority scheduling is a scheduling method where at all times the highest priority process is assigned the resource.

10. What is the difference between a process and a task?

A Particular Work to be Done is known as TASK

one or more PROCESS will be required to complete a task.

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