The main programs here are Arthur Samuel's, the rote learning method which is a lot like a memory based method, generalization learning which is a lot like backprop and a signature table approach that also gives you a feed-forward type network. One of Samuel's programs did beat a checkers champion and the AI community has often make a fuss over that saying that this AI program played a "championship-level" game however that expert beat the program in the next 6 games. Note too, what Samuels says: "the program is quite capable of beating any amateur player and can give better players a good contest".
Some game playing programs are getting quite good and I expect that in the long run all the best "players" will be programs. While that is wonderful and while those programs that learn to play their games get a rating of minimal intelligence from me remember that what's impressive about people is that not only can they do games, they do heuristic search, theorem proving, use natural language and cope with the real world. The real challenge is to get programs to do that. If you simply pursue techniques for game playing will you ever end up with all these human capabilities in one program?
This section looks at Berliner's program, two backprop versions by Tesauro and a temporal difference method by Tesauro. This latter program is VERY good and has found strategies that now human backgammon players acknowledge are better than some of the old humanly devised strategies.
Yes artificial intelligence Games lives over the other software programs and their flexibility.
c) Transposition table
a) Depends on the nodes
a) Same as of DFS
b) Space - bm and time - bm
Explanation: Same as DFS
8. Minimax algorithm (Figure 6.3) computes the minimax decision from the current state. It uses a simple recursive computation of the minimax values of each successor state, directly implementing the defining equations. The recursion proceeds all the way down to the leaves of the tree, and then the minimax values are backed up through the tree as the recursion unwinds.
Explanation: Refer definition of minimax algorithm.
b) Game Tree
An example of game tree for Tic-Tac-Toe game.
Explanation: Zero sum games could be multiplayer games as long as the condition for zero sum game is satisfied