/* Use printf() to print the first 11 characters of source_str. */
printf(First 11 characters: ‘%11.11s'n, source_str);
A pointer value is a data object that refers to a memory location. Each memory locaion is numbered in the memory. The number attached to a memory location is called the address of the location.
A static function is a function whose scope is limited to the current source file. Scope refers to the visibility of a function or variable. If the function or variable is visible outside of the current source file, it is said to have global, or external, scope. If the function or variable is not visible outside of the current source file, it is said to have local, or static, scope.
A pointer variable is a variable that may contain the address of another variable or any valid address in the memory.
A void pointer is a C convention for a raw address. The compiler has no idea what type of object a void Pointer really points to. If you write
ip points to an int. If you write
p doesn't point to a void!
In C and C++, any time you need a void pointer, you can use another pointer type. For example, if you have a char*, you can pass it to a function that expects a void*. You don't even need to cast it. In C (but not in C++), you can use a void* any time you need any kind of pointer, without casting. (In C++, you need to cast it).
A void pointer is used for working with raw memory or for passing a pointer to an unspecified type.
Some C code operates on raw memory. When C was first invented, character pointers (char *) were used for that. Then people started getting confused about when a character pointer was a string, when it was a character array, and when it was raw memory.
An lvalue was defined as an expression to which a value can be assigned. Is an array an expression to which we can assign a value? The answer to this question is no, because an array is composed of several separate array elements that cannot be treated as a whole for assignment purposes.
The following statement is therefore illegal:
int x, y; x = y;
Additionally, you might want to copy the whole array all at once. You can do so using a library function such as the memcpy() function, which is shown here:
memcpy(x, y, sizeof(y));
It should be noted here that unlike arrays, structures can be treated as lvalues. Thus, you can assign one structure variable to another structure variable of the same type, such as this:
typedef struct t_name
NAME my_name, your_name;
your_name = my_name;
An lvalue is an expression to which a value can be assigned. The lvalue expression is located on the left side of an assignment statement, whereas an rvalue is located on the right side of an assignment statement. Each assignment statement must have an lvalue and an rvalue. The lvalue expression must reference a storable variable in memory. It cannot be a constant.
If you declare a variable, its name is a direct reference to its value. If you have a pointer to a variable, or any other object in memory, you have an indirect reference to its value.
Most operating systems, including DOS, provide a means to redirect program input and output to and from different devices. This means that rather than your program output (stdout) going to the screen; it can be redirected to a file or printer port. Similarly, your program’s input (stdin) can come from a file rather than the keyboard. In DOS, this task is accomplished using the redirection characters, < and >. For example, if you wanted a program named PRINTIT.EXE to receive its input (stdin) from a file named STRINGS.TXT, you would enter the following command at the DOS prompt:
C:> PRINTIT <STRINGS.TXT
Notice that the name of the executable file always comes first. The less-than sign (<) tells DOS to take the strings contained in STRINGS.TXT and use them as input for the PRINTIT program.
The following example would redirect the program’s output to the prn device, usually the printer attached on LPT1:
C :> REDIR > PRN
Alternatively, you might want to redirect the program’s output to a file, as the following example shows:
C :> REDIR > REDIR.OUT
In this example, all output that would have normally appeared on-screen will be written to the file
Redirection of standard streams does not always have to occur at the operating system. You can redirect a standard stream from within your program by using the standard C library function named freopen(). For example, if you wanted to redirect the stdout standard stream within your program to a file named OUTPUT.TXT, you would