Listing from visual studio .net > Button Class System.Object
CLR(Common Language Runtime) is the main resource of .Net Framework. it is collection of services like garbage collector, exception handler, jit compilers etc. with the CLR cross language integration is possible.
The .NET Framework provides a runtime environment which runs the code and provides services that make the development process easier. This runtime environment in .NET Framework is known as Common Language Runtime (CLR). The CLR sits at the very heart of managed code. Common Language Runtime is the generalized multi-language, reflective execution engine on which code originally written in various languages runs. At a higher level, CLR is simply an engine that takes in Intermediate Language (IL) instructions, translates them into machine instructions, and executes them. Although the common language runtime provides many standard runtime services, managed code is never interpreted. A feature called just-in-time (JIT) compiling enables all managed code to run in the native machine language of the system on which it is executing. The CLR shares much in common with a traditional operating system.
Managed code is the term used for any code that is running on .NET Framework.
The CLR provides the infrastructure that enables managed code to execute as well provides variety of services during execution. When a method, for which IL has been generated, is called for the first time the CLR compiles the IL into native code that is specific to the processor the Environment it is running on (This process is known as Just in Time Compilation or JIT). If the same method is called next time, the existing JIT compiled code is reused. During execution managed code receives variety of services from the runtime environment.
When compiling to managed code, the compiler translates your source code into Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL), which is a CPU-independent set of instructions that can be efficiently converted to native code. Intermediate Language is a binary assembly language that is compiled at runtime down to whatever machine language is appropriate for the host CPU. This runtime compilation is called Just-In-Time Compiling or JIT-compiling.
NET Remoting and ASP.NET Web Services. If we talk about the Framework Class Library, noteworthy classes are in System.Runtime.Remoting and System.Web.Services.
Using pagination option in DataGrid control is available in .NET. We have to set the number of records for a page, then it takes care of pagination by itself automatically.
Assemblies are the smallest units of versioning and deployment in the .NET application. Assemblies are also the building blocks for programs such as Web services, Windows services, serviced components, and .NET Remoting applications.
Assemblies are also the building blocks for programs such as Web services, Windows services, serviced components, and .NET Remoting applications.
Types of Assemblies:
Assemblies are similar to dll files. Both has the reusable pieces of code in the form of classes/ functions. Dll needs to be registered but assemblies have its own metadata.
Assembly is a single deployable unit that contains information about the implementation of classes, structures and interfaces. it also stores the information about itself called metadata and includes name and verison of the assembly, security information, information about the dependencies and the list of files that constitute the assembly.
Assembly also contains namespaces. In the .Net Framework, applications are deployed in the form of assemblies.
An assembly is a single deploy able unit that contains all the information about the implementation of :
- structures and
An assembly stores all the information about itself. This information is called METADATA and include the name and the verison number of the assembly, security information, information about the dependencies and a lost of files that constitute the assembly.
All the application developed using the .NET framework are made up of assemblies.
Namespaces are also stored in assemblies
In the Microsoft .NET framework an assembly is a partially compiled code library for use in deployment, versioning and security. In the Microsoft Windows implementation of .NET, an assembly is a PE (portable executable) file. There are two types, process assemblies (EXE) and library assemblies (DLL). A process assembly represents a process which will use classes defined in library assemblies. In version 1.1 of the CLR classes can only be exported from library assemblies; in version 2.0 this restriction is relaxed. The compiler will have a switch to determine if the assembly is a process or library and will set a flag in the PE file. .NET does not use the extension to determine if the file is a process or library. This means that a library may have either .dll or .exe as its extension.
The code in an assembly is partially compiled into CIL, which is then fully compiled into machine language at runtime by the CLR.
An assembly can consist of one or more files. Code files are called modules. An assembly can contain more than one code module and since it is possible to use different languages to create code modules this means that it is technically possible to use several different languages to create an assembly. In practice this rarely happens, principally because Visual Studio only allows developers to create assemblies that consist of a single code module.
Client side is done by default. Server side validation is also possible in .NET. We can switch off the client side and server side can be done only in .NET
The cursor position is maintained when the page gets refreshed due to the server side validation and the page gets refreshed.
An assembly manifest contains all the metadata needed to specify the assembly's version requirements and security identity, and all metadata needed to define the scope of the assembly and resolve references to resources and classes. The assembly manifest can be stored in either a PE (Portable Executable) file (an .exe or .dll) with Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) code or in a standalone PE (Portable Executable) file that contains only assembly manifest information. The following table shows the information contained in the assembly manifest. The first four items the assembly name, version number, culture, and strong name information make up the assembly's identity.
Assembly name: A text string specifying the assembly's name.
Version number: A major and minor version number, and a revision and build number. The common language runtime uses these numbers to enforce version policy.
Culture: Information on the culture or language the assembly supports. This information should be used only to designate an assembly as a satellite assembly containing culture- or language-specific information. (An assembly with culture information is automatically assumed to be a satellite assembly.) Strong name information: The public key from the publisher if the assembly has been given a strong name. List of all files in the assembly:
A hash of each file contained in the assembly and a file name. Note that all files that make up the assembly must be in the same directory as the file containing the assembly manifest.
Type reference information: Information used by the runtime to map a type reference to the file that contains its declaration and implementation. This is used for types that are exported from the assembly.
Information on referenced assemblies: A list of other assemblies that are statically referenced by the assembly. Each reference includes the dependent assembly's name, assembly metadata (version, culture, operating system, and so on), and public key, if the assembly is strong named.
Now VB.NET is object-oriented language. The following are some of the differences:
Data Type Changes
The .NET platform provides Common Type System to all the supported languages. This means that all the languages must support the same data types as enforced by common language runtime. This eliminates data type incompatibilities between various languages. For example on the 32-bit Windows platform, the integer data type takes 4 bytes in languages like C++ whereas in VB it takes 2 bytes. Following are the main changes related to data types in VB.NET:
. Under .NET the integer data type in VB.NET is also 4 bytes in size.
. VB.NET has no currency data type. Instead it provides decimal as a replacement.
. VB.NET introduces a new data type called Char. The char data type takes 2 bytes and can store Unicode characters.
. VB.NET do not have Variant data type. To achieve a result similar to variant type you can use Object data type. (Since every thing in .NET including primitive data types is an object, a variable of object type can point to any data type).
. In VB.NET there is no concept of fixed length strings.
. In VB6 we used the Type keyword to declare our user-defined structures. VB.NET introduces the structure keyword for the same purpose.
Consider this simple example in VB6:
Dim x,y as integer