Cash System of Accounting: This system records only cash receipts and payments. This system assumes that there are no credit transactions. In this system of accounting, expenses are considered only when they are paid and incomes are considered when they are actually received. This system is used by the organizations which are established for non profit purpose. But this system is considered to be defective in nature as it does not show the actual profits earned and the current state of affairs of the organization.
Capital Expenditure is an amount incurred for acquiring the long term assets such as land, building, equipments which are continually used for the purpose of earning revenue. These are not meant for sale. These costs are recorded in accounts namely Plant, Property, Equipment. Benefits from such expenditure are spread over several accounting years.
E.g. Interest on capital paid, Expenditure on purchase or installation of an asset, brokerage and commission paid.
Capitalization is a collection of share capital, loans, reserves and debentures. It represents permanent investment in companies and it also removes the need of long-term loan plans. It is used to show the reality of the industry by promoting competition, development, profit and investment between individuals, companies and businesses. Balance capitalization is part of this Capitalization only where it is compared to the relative importance, value and other things to make it proportionate in every sense. In balance capitalization debits and credits should be equal on both sides and the share should be shared among all in equal proportions.
Capitalization is a term which has different meanings in both financial and accounting context. Capitalization in accounting means the cost to buy an asset which is included in the price of the asset whereas in financial terms it is the cost which is required to buy an asset which includes price of a particular asset and it also include the retained earnings of a company with stock debt and long term debt. There are two kinds of capitalization which are called as Over-capitalization and another is called as Under-capitalization. Capitalization is very import aspect in determining the value of the company in the market which is based on the economic structure of the company. This aspect depends on the previous records and economics of the company. This also shows a particular behaviour of the companies' structure and allows them to create a plan to do the marketing.
Capital structure is a term which is referred to be the mix of sources from which the long term funds are required for business purposes which are raised to improve the capital of the company. To fund an organization plan this capital structure is required which is the combination of debt and equity. The management ensures the capital structure accesses which are needed to fund future growth and enhance financial performance. The principles of capital structure management which are essentially required are as follows:-
1) Cost Principle
2) Risk Principle
3) Control Principle
4) Flexibility Principle
5) Timing Principle
Share Capital is that portion of a company's equity that has been obtained by issuing share to a shareholder. The amount of share capital increases as new shares are sold to public in exchange for cash.
Reserves and Surpluses indicate that portion of the earnings, receipt or other surplus of the company appropriated by the management for a general or specific purpose other than provisions for depreciation or for a known liability. Reserves are classified as: Capital Reserve and Capital Redemption Reserve.
★ Preparation of financial plan at the time of company promotion
★ Financial adjustments in times of liquidity crisis
★ Valuation of the firm at the time of acquisition and merger etc.
Deciding the financial needs
★ Raising the funds required
★ Allocation of funds
•Fixed assets management
•Working capital management
★ Allocation of Income
★ Control of Funds
★ Evaluation of Performance
★ Corporate Taxation
Proprietary firm is generally a small scale business. Hence there are many opportunities for individuals to start their own business enabling widespread dispersion of economic wealth.