Originally refers to a German Protestant hymn tune. In composition, it typically means a choral composition for voices or instruments, such as a Bach chorale. The word “Chorale” is also sometimes used as the name of a choir or chorus.
The frequency* of a note determining how high or low it sounds (* “frequency” in this context is the number of complete oscillations per second of energy as sound in the form of sound-waves).
When a flat symbol ♭ is added to a note it lowers the note by a half-step. For example, if we have the note D and we add a flat to it the note now becomes D-flat or D♭.
A group of pitches based on a particular tonic, and comprising a scale, regarded as forming the tonal basis of a piece or section of music.
When a sharp symbol ♯ is added to a note it raises the note by a half-step. For example, if we have the note G and we add a sharp to it the note now becomes G-sharp, or G♯.
1) A group of musicians playing together like an orchestra or a string quartet;
2) The actual act of playing as a unit, or performing together.
An extended solo (played alone) for the soloist in a concerto. A cadenza can also be a solo in an orchestral work for one or a group of instruments.
A symbol that tells the performer to hold the note as long as s/he would like, but certainly longer than the written note value.
Meaning wide, broad. In music a tempo marking meaning to be performed quite slowly.