Laws of mass action were proposed by Gulberg and Waage. The rate of chemical reaction is directly proportional to the product of the active masses of the reactants (molar concentrations of the reactants)
The minimum amount of energy required for the reaction to takes place is called threshold energy.
Sodium Chloride, limestone and ammonia
To form the DNA molecule, purine bases bind to pyrimidine bases by intermolecular bonds called hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds occur when there is hydrogen near one of these electronegative elements: fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen.
In such conditions hydrogen looks like having, lost electron for those elements and a very strong polarization is created. The highly positive hydrogen attracts pairs of electrons of other molecules making a hydrogen bond.
A DNA polynucleotide chain serves as template in replication (DNA duplication) as well in transcription (RNA formation). In both processes, the pairing of the two-polynucleotide chains of the original DNA molecule is broken by the breaking of hydrogen bonds for the chains to be exposed as templates. The reaction is catalyzed by specific enzymes in transcription and in replication.
In replication, the enzyme DNA polymerase catalyzes the formation of a new polynucleotide chain using free nucleotides in solution and putting them in the new chain according to the DNA template exposed and to the rule A-T, C-G. In transcription, the enzyme RNApolymerase makes a new polynucletide chain according to the DNA template exposed obeying, however, the rule A-U, C-G.
In replication, the original template DNA chain is kept bound by hydrogen bonds to the newly formed DNA chain and a new DNA molecule is then created. In transcription the association between the template DNA chain and the newly formed RNA is undid and RNA constituted of only one polynucleotide chain is liberated.
The difference between Threshold energy and average energy of the molecules is called activation energy.
The difference of Enthalpys of products and reactants H=Hp-Hr
The rule for the pairing of nitrogen-containing bases of the polynucleotide chains that form the DNA molecule is pyrimidine base binds to purine base, under the condition that thymine (T) binds to adenine (A), and cytosine (C) binds to guanine (G).
In RNA, there is no binding between nitrogen-containing bases. That is because RNA is formed of only one polynucleotide chain; differently, DNA is formed of two chains. It is not correct so to question about base pairing in RNA.
The making of RNA from information contained in DNA is called transcription. The enzyme that catalyzes the process is the RNA polymerase.